The effects of experimental pain and induced optimism on working memory task performance

The effects of experimental pain and induced optimism on working memory task performance AbstractBackground/aimsPain can interrupt and deteriorate executive task performance. We have previously shown that experimentally induced optimism can diminish the deteriorating effect of cold pressor pain on a subsequent working memory task (i.e., operation span task). In two successive experiments we sought further evidence for the protective role of optimism on pain-induced working memory impairments. We used another working memory task (i.e., 2-back task) that was performed either after or during pain induction.MethodsStudy 1 employed a 2 (optimism vs. no-optimism) × 2 (pain vs. no-pain) × 2 (pre-score vs. postscore) mixed factorial design. In half of the participants optimism was induced by the Best Possible Self (BPS) manipulation, which required them to write and visualize about a life in the future where everything turned out for the best. In the control condition, participants wrote and visualized a typical day in their life (TD). Next, participants completed either the cold pressor task (CPT) or a warm water control task (WWCT). Before (baseline) and after the CPT or WWCT participants working memory performance was measured with the 2-back task. The 2-back task measures the ability to monitor and update working memory representation by asking participants to indicate whether the current stimulus corresponds to the stimulus that was presented 2 stimuli ago. Study 2 had a 2 (optimism vs. no-optimism) × 2 (pain vs. no-pain) mixed factorial design. After receiving the BPS or control manipulation, participants completed the 2-back task twice: once with painful heat stimulation, and once without any stimulation (counterbalanced order). Continuous heat stimulation was used with temperatures oscillating around 1 °C above and 1 °C below the individual pain threshold.ResultsIn study 1, the results did not show an effect of cold pressor pain on subsequent 2-back task performance. Results of study 2 indicated that heat pain impaired concurrent 2-back task performance. However, no evidence was found that optimism protected against this pain-induced performance deterioration.ConclusionsExperimentally induced pain impairs concurrent but not subsequent working memory task performance. Manipulated optimism did not counteract pain-induced deterioration of 2-back performance.ImplicationsIt is important to explore factors that may diminish the negative impact of pain on the ability to function in daily life, as pain itself often cannot be remediated. We are planning to conduct future studies that should shed further light on the conditions, contexts and executive operations for which optimism can act as a protective factor. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Scandinavian Journal of Pain de Gruyter

The effects of experimental pain and induced optimism on working memory task performance

Loading next page...
 
/lp/degruyter/the-effects-of-experimental-pain-and-induced-optimism-on-working-CI4SJ0nS1J
Publisher
De Gruyter
Copyright
© 2016 Scandinavian Association for the Study of Pain
ISSN
1877-8860
eISSN
1877-8879
D.O.I.
10.1016/j.sjpain.2016.03.001
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

AbstractBackground/aimsPain can interrupt and deteriorate executive task performance. We have previously shown that experimentally induced optimism can diminish the deteriorating effect of cold pressor pain on a subsequent working memory task (i.e., operation span task). In two successive experiments we sought further evidence for the protective role of optimism on pain-induced working memory impairments. We used another working memory task (i.e., 2-back task) that was performed either after or during pain induction.MethodsStudy 1 employed a 2 (optimism vs. no-optimism) × 2 (pain vs. no-pain) × 2 (pre-score vs. postscore) mixed factorial design. In half of the participants optimism was induced by the Best Possible Self (BPS) manipulation, which required them to write and visualize about a life in the future where everything turned out for the best. In the control condition, participants wrote and visualized a typical day in their life (TD). Next, participants completed either the cold pressor task (CPT) or a warm water control task (WWCT). Before (baseline) and after the CPT or WWCT participants working memory performance was measured with the 2-back task. The 2-back task measures the ability to monitor and update working memory representation by asking participants to indicate whether the current stimulus corresponds to the stimulus that was presented 2 stimuli ago. Study 2 had a 2 (optimism vs. no-optimism) × 2 (pain vs. no-pain) mixed factorial design. After receiving the BPS or control manipulation, participants completed the 2-back task twice: once with painful heat stimulation, and once without any stimulation (counterbalanced order). Continuous heat stimulation was used with temperatures oscillating around 1 °C above and 1 °C below the individual pain threshold.ResultsIn study 1, the results did not show an effect of cold pressor pain on subsequent 2-back task performance. Results of study 2 indicated that heat pain impaired concurrent 2-back task performance. However, no evidence was found that optimism protected against this pain-induced performance deterioration.ConclusionsExperimentally induced pain impairs concurrent but not subsequent working memory task performance. Manipulated optimism did not counteract pain-induced deterioration of 2-back performance.ImplicationsIt is important to explore factors that may diminish the negative impact of pain on the ability to function in daily life, as pain itself often cannot be remediated. We are planning to conduct future studies that should shed further light on the conditions, contexts and executive operations for which optimism can act as a protective factor.

Journal

Scandinavian Journal of Painde Gruyter

Published: Jul 1, 2016

There are no references for this article.

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create lists to
organize your research

Export lists, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off