AbstractTherapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is used to manage drugs with a narrow window between effective and toxic concentrations. TDM involves measuring blood concentrations of drugs to ensure effective therapy, avoid toxicity and monitor compliance. Common drugs for which TDM is used include aminoglycosides for infections, anticonvulsants to treat seizures, immunosuppressants for transplant patients and cardiac glycosides to regulate cardiac output and heart rate. An essential element of TDM is the provision of accurate and clinically relevant reference intervals. Unlike most laboratory reference intervals, which are derived from a healthy population, TDM reference intervals need to relate to clinical outcomes in the form of efficacy and toxicity. This makes TDM inherently more difficult to develop as healthy individuals are not on therapy, so there is no “normal value”. In addition, many of the aforementioned drugs are old and much of the information regarding reference intervals is based on small trials using methods that have changed. Furthermore, individuals have different pharmacokinetics and drug responses, particularly in the context of combined therapies, which exacerbates the challenge of universal TDM targets. This focused review examines the origins and limitations of existing TDM reference intervals for common drugs, providing targets where possible based on available guidelines.
Diagnosis – de Gruyter
Published: Jun 27, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera