Painful heat attenuates electrically induced muscle pain in men and women

Painful heat attenuates electrically induced muscle pain in men and women AabstractBackground and purposeWomen exhibit higher prevalence of most painful disorders. Several explanations have been proposed for this discrepancy, one being that endogenous pain modulatory pathways, which affect incoming nociceptive signals, act differently in men and women. A less efficient pain inhibitory system has been proposed as a contributing factor to explain why women exhibit higher prevalence of most painful disorders. The present study determined whether muscle pain, induced experimentally by electrical stimulation, is inhibited by a painful heat stimulus. This conditioned pain modulation (CPM) paradigm was used to determine whether women show signs of reduced inhibition compared to men.MethodsForty self-reported healthy individuals (20 female, 20 male) participated in a cross-over design with painful and non-painful heat as a conditioning stimulus. Test stimuli were painful intramuscular electrical stimulation of the tibialis anterior muscle at two intensities; low (1.1 × pain threshold) and high (1.6 × pain threshold). Painful conditioning was contact heat (45–49 ° C) to the contralateral forearm. Nonpainful conditioning was contact heat at 35 °C. Ten test stimuli were delivered in three blocks (before, during and after conditioning) in two sessions (painful and non-painful conditioning). The women were tested during days 12-14 of the menstrual cycle. This interval corresponds to the ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle, the interval during which women are reported to show the largest inhibitory effects.ResultsTest stimuli were rated significantly lower during painful conditioning, compared with before conditioning. This was found for both low and high test stimulus intensities. Anonspecific attenuation was seen during non-painful conditioning for the low test stimulus intensity. Test stimuli were rated significantly lower also 3 min after conditioning, compared with before conditioning. The inhibitory effects were not different between men and women. Similar findings were obtained also if six non-CPM-responders (subjects rating test stimuli higher during conditioning than before conditioning) were excluded.Conclusions and implicationsThe present findings indicate that painful contact heat inhibits electrically induced muscle pain and that inhibition was not different between men and women, when women were tested in the interval 12-14 days after their last menstruation. Some inhibition of muscle pain was seen during non-painful conditioning, indicating that nonspecific inhibitory effects were triggered. Also the nonspecific inhibitory effects were similar in men and women. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Scandinavian Journal of Pain de Gruyter

Painful heat attenuates electrically induced muscle pain in men and women

Loading next page...
 
/lp/degruyter/painful-heat-attenuates-electrically-induced-muscle-pain-in-men-and-0sgLWQgMvK
Publisher
De Gruyter
Copyright
© 2012 Scandinavian Association for the Study of Pain
ISSN
1877-8860
eISSN
1877-8879
D.O.I.
10.1016/j.sjpain.2012.04.006
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

AabstractBackground and purposeWomen exhibit higher prevalence of most painful disorders. Several explanations have been proposed for this discrepancy, one being that endogenous pain modulatory pathways, which affect incoming nociceptive signals, act differently in men and women. A less efficient pain inhibitory system has been proposed as a contributing factor to explain why women exhibit higher prevalence of most painful disorders. The present study determined whether muscle pain, induced experimentally by electrical stimulation, is inhibited by a painful heat stimulus. This conditioned pain modulation (CPM) paradigm was used to determine whether women show signs of reduced inhibition compared to men.MethodsForty self-reported healthy individuals (20 female, 20 male) participated in a cross-over design with painful and non-painful heat as a conditioning stimulus. Test stimuli were painful intramuscular electrical stimulation of the tibialis anterior muscle at two intensities; low (1.1 × pain threshold) and high (1.6 × pain threshold). Painful conditioning was contact heat (45–49 ° C) to the contralateral forearm. Nonpainful conditioning was contact heat at 35 °C. Ten test stimuli were delivered in three blocks (before, during and after conditioning) in two sessions (painful and non-painful conditioning). The women were tested during days 12-14 of the menstrual cycle. This interval corresponds to the ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle, the interval during which women are reported to show the largest inhibitory effects.ResultsTest stimuli were rated significantly lower during painful conditioning, compared with before conditioning. This was found for both low and high test stimulus intensities. Anonspecific attenuation was seen during non-painful conditioning for the low test stimulus intensity. Test stimuli were rated significantly lower also 3 min after conditioning, compared with before conditioning. The inhibitory effects were not different between men and women. Similar findings were obtained also if six non-CPM-responders (subjects rating test stimuli higher during conditioning than before conditioning) were excluded.Conclusions and implicationsThe present findings indicate that painful contact heat inhibits electrically induced muscle pain and that inhibition was not different between men and women, when women were tested in the interval 12-14 days after their last menstruation. Some inhibition of muscle pain was seen during non-painful conditioning, indicating that nonspecific inhibitory effects were triggered. Also the nonspecific inhibitory effects were similar in men and women.

Journal

Scandinavian Journal of Painde Gruyter

Published: Dec 29, 2017

There are no references for this article.

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

Monthly Plan

  • Read unlimited articles
  • Personalized recommendations
  • No expiration
  • Print 20 pages per month
  • 20% off on PDF purchases
  • Organize your research
  • Get updates on your journals and topic searches

$49/month

Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial

Best Deal — 39% off

Annual Plan

  • All the features of the Professional Plan, but for 39% off!
  • Billed annually
  • No expiration
  • For the normal price of 10 articles elsewhere, you get one full year of unlimited access to articles.

$588

$360/year

billed annually
Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial