Painful heat attenuates electrically induced muscle pain in men and women

Painful heat attenuates electrically induced muscle pain in men and women AabstractBackground and purposeWomen exhibit higher prevalence of most painful disorders. Several explanations have been proposed for this discrepancy, one being that endogenous pain modulatory pathways, which affect incoming nociceptive signals, act differently in men and women. A less efficient pain inhibitory system has been proposed as a contributing factor to explain why women exhibit higher prevalence of most painful disorders. The present study determined whether muscle pain, induced experimentally by electrical stimulation, is inhibited by a painful heat stimulus. This conditioned pain modulation (CPM) paradigm was used to determine whether women show signs of reduced inhibition compared to men.MethodsForty self-reported healthy individuals (20 female, 20 male) participated in a cross-over design with painful and non-painful heat as a conditioning stimulus. Test stimuli were painful intramuscular electrical stimulation of the tibialis anterior muscle at two intensities; low (1.1 × pain threshold) and high (1.6 × pain threshold). Painful conditioning was contact heat (45–49 ° C) to the contralateral forearm. Nonpainful conditioning was contact heat at 35 °C. Ten test stimuli were delivered in three blocks (before, during and after conditioning) in two sessions (painful and non-painful conditioning). The women were tested during days 12-14 of the menstrual cycle. This interval corresponds to the ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle, the interval during which women are reported to show the largest inhibitory effects.ResultsTest stimuli were rated significantly lower during painful conditioning, compared with before conditioning. This was found for both low and high test stimulus intensities. Anonspecific attenuation was seen during non-painful conditioning for the low test stimulus intensity. Test stimuli were rated significantly lower also 3 min after conditioning, compared with before conditioning. The inhibitory effects were not different between men and women. Similar findings were obtained also if six non-CPM-responders (subjects rating test stimuli higher during conditioning than before conditioning) were excluded.Conclusions and implicationsThe present findings indicate that painful contact heat inhibits electrically induced muscle pain and that inhibition was not different between men and women, when women were tested in the interval 12-14 days after their last menstruation. Some inhibition of muscle pain was seen during non-painful conditioning, indicating that nonspecific inhibitory effects were triggered. Also the nonspecific inhibitory effects were similar in men and women. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Scandinavian Journal of Pain de Gruyter

Painful heat attenuates electrically induced muscle pain in men and women

Loading next page...
 
/lp/degruyter/painful-heat-attenuates-electrically-induced-muscle-pain-in-men-and-0sgLWQgMvK
Publisher
de Gruyter
Copyright
© 2012 Scandinavian Association for the Study of Pain
ISSN
1877-8860
eISSN
1877-8879
D.O.I.
10.1016/j.sjpain.2012.04.006
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

AabstractBackground and purposeWomen exhibit higher prevalence of most painful disorders. Several explanations have been proposed for this discrepancy, one being that endogenous pain modulatory pathways, which affect incoming nociceptive signals, act differently in men and women. A less efficient pain inhibitory system has been proposed as a contributing factor to explain why women exhibit higher prevalence of most painful disorders. The present study determined whether muscle pain, induced experimentally by electrical stimulation, is inhibited by a painful heat stimulus. This conditioned pain modulation (CPM) paradigm was used to determine whether women show signs of reduced inhibition compared to men.MethodsForty self-reported healthy individuals (20 female, 20 male) participated in a cross-over design with painful and non-painful heat as a conditioning stimulus. Test stimuli were painful intramuscular electrical stimulation of the tibialis anterior muscle at two intensities; low (1.1 × pain threshold) and high (1.6 × pain threshold). Painful conditioning was contact heat (45–49 ° C) to the contralateral forearm. Nonpainful conditioning was contact heat at 35 °C. Ten test stimuli were delivered in three blocks (before, during and after conditioning) in two sessions (painful and non-painful conditioning). The women were tested during days 12-14 of the menstrual cycle. This interval corresponds to the ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle, the interval during which women are reported to show the largest inhibitory effects.ResultsTest stimuli were rated significantly lower during painful conditioning, compared with before conditioning. This was found for both low and high test stimulus intensities. Anonspecific attenuation was seen during non-painful conditioning for the low test stimulus intensity. Test stimuli were rated significantly lower also 3 min after conditioning, compared with before conditioning. The inhibitory effects were not different between men and women. Similar findings were obtained also if six non-CPM-responders (subjects rating test stimuli higher during conditioning than before conditioning) were excluded.Conclusions and implicationsThe present findings indicate that painful contact heat inhibits electrically induced muscle pain and that inhibition was not different between men and women, when women were tested in the interval 12-14 days after their last menstruation. Some inhibition of muscle pain was seen during non-painful conditioning, indicating that nonspecific inhibitory effects were triggered. Also the nonspecific inhibitory effects were similar in men and women.

Journal

Scandinavian Journal of Painde Gruyter

Published: Apr 1, 2013

There are no references for this article.

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create lists to
organize your research

Export lists, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off