Effects of habituation to the testing facility on mechanical nociceptive thresholds of pigs

Effects of habituation to the testing facility on mechanical nociceptive thresholds of pigs Abstracts / Scandinavian Journal of Pain 8 (2015) 47–54Effects of habituation to the testing facility onmechanical nociceptive thresholds of pigsP. Di Giminiani a , J.S. Stausholm a , E. Viitasaari b ,L.J. Petersen c , M.S. Herskin a,∗aDepartment of Animal Science, AU-FOULUM,Aarhus University, Tjele, Denmarkb Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University ofHelsinki, Helsinki, Finlandc Department of Nuclear Medicine, AalborgUniversity Hospital, Aalborg, DenmarkE-mail address:Pierpaolo.Di-Giminiani@newcastle.ac.uk (P. DiGiminiani).Aims: This study aimed to gain methodological knowledgeabout quantification of mechanical nociceptive thresholds in pigsstimulated on the hind legs.Methods: Thirty-two castrated male pigs were used, weighing 50–60 kg, 16 weeks of age and housed in standard pens(4.40 m × 4.40 m) with ad libitum access to water and feed. Mechanical nociceptive testing (4 stimulations/pig) was done by anelectronic von Frey anesthesiometer (IITC Life Science Inc., CA)with a rigid, hollow plastic tip (cut-off: 1000 gf) and an area of0.3 mm2 . Stimulations targeted caudal aspects of the metatarsuswhile the pigs were restrained in a cage measuring 35 cm × 40 cm(length × width). During the last 3d before nociceptive testing, halfof the pigs were habituated to the experimental set-up twice daily.Results: Across the three days, the habituation procedure ledto a reduction in time required to approach and release the pigsfrom the home pen (P < 0.05) and to increased acceptance ofthe confinement (P < 0.01). The habituated animals had a lowermechanical nociceptive threshold (median: 495 gf (302–675) vs745 gf (479–1000); P < 0.05), and a decreased occurrence of censored observations (0 vs 25%; P < 0.05) compared to animals testedwithout habituation.Conclusions: The present experiment focussed on methodological aspects of hand-held tests of mechanical nociceptivethresholds in pigs. The results show that the pigs responded to a3-day habituation regime by increased ease of handling and tolerance of being confined in a test cage. In addition, habituationto the test environment and handling led to reduced mechanicalnociceptive thresholds as well as a lowered proportion of censoredobservations. The current results reiterate the value of habituationin research involving animal behaviour. Further characterization ofthe methodology is needed to allow its application in the evaluationof clinical conditions in pigs.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjpain.2015.04.008Chronic nonmalignant pain at amono-disciplinary pain clinic. Identifying thekey patient groups for targeted healthpromotion – A cohort studyC. HansenClinic of Neuroanesthesiology, Rigshospitalet,Glostrup, DenmarkE-mail address: carrinna.hansen.01@regionh.dk.Aims: To identify and describe the most common category ofpatients in a newly established mono-disciplinary pain clinic, inorder to plan, test, evaluate and implement targeted health promotion interventions.Methods: The study was a register-based retrospective cohortstudy comprising data from the hospital registration system49GS!open. Including chronic non-malignant pain patients in theperiod January 1st 2013 to December 31st 2014; analysing onlypatients who underwent a treatment trajectory by the monodisciplinary pain clinic.Results: The study population consisted of 300 men and 509women, mean age 53.6 year. By descriptive statistics the threemajor patient groups was identified: (1) Long lasting/chronic nonmalignant pain – comprising 52% of the cohort, representing 37%male, mean age 54.9 year, mainly labeled nonspecific back pain;(2) Other chronic pain – representing 15% of the cohort, comprising45% male, mean age 56.0 year; (3) Reflex dystrophy – comprising8% of the cohort, with 30% male, mean age 43.6 year. The clinic had4.161 outpatient consultations in the period with an increase of13.9% from 2013 to 2014; average consultation rate per individualwas 5.2 for women both years; for men the average was 5.1 in 2013and 4.9 in 2014. In addition, the pain clinic patients were referredfrom: hospital (89.3%); hospital waiting trajectory (1.7%); generalpractitioner (7.3%) and practitioner specialist (1.7%).Conclusions: This register-based study revealed that patientswith nonspecific back pain were the most frequent patient categorytreated in the mono-disciplinary pain clinic. This finding suggeststhat targeted health promotion intervention may advantageouslybe organized with focus on the large group of patients with chronicnonspecific back pain.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjpain.2015.04.009Characterization of complex chronic painpatientsE.-B. Hysing ∗ , T. Gordh, R. Karlsten, L. SmithMultidisciplinary Pain Center, Uppsala UniversityHospital, Uppsala, SwedenE-mail address: Eva-Britt.Hysing@akademiska.se(E.-B. Hysing).Aims: Treatment of the most complex chronic pain patients,often not accepted in regular pain management programs, remainsa challenge. To be able to design interventions for these patients wemust know what characterize them. The aim of this study was tocharacterize a subgroup of pain patients, treated in our in-patientrehabilitation programme, organized at the University Hospital inUppsala, the only tertiary treatment for pain patients in Sweden.Methods: The study was approved by the Regional EthicalReview Board in Uppsala (Dnr 2010/182). Seventy-two patients,consecutive new referrals seen at the rehabilitation program in2008–2010 were enrolled and examined with a 41-item questionnaire of symptoms other than pain. The 41 symptoms werelisted on an ordinal scale from 0–10, with 0–no problems and10–severe problem. The mean pain intensity within the preceding 24-h was assessed using an 11-point NRS, numeric rating scalefrom 0–no problems to 10–severe problems. Information aboutdrug-consumption was obtained from the medical record. The opioid medication was translated to morphine-equivalents dos usingEAPC (European Association for Palliative Care) conversion table.Results: Seventy-two patients were enrolled and screened, 39%men and 61% woman. Median age 45 years (range 20–70). Seventyfour percent of patients were treated with opioids, 15 patients withmore than one opioid. They all reported high pain intensity, the fourpatients with doses over 150 mg MEq reported pain 5–8. There wasno correlation between the dose of opioids and pain intensity. Thepatients reported 22 symptoms (median) other than pain. The number of symptoms reported using this scale in a normal population isthree–four. The most common symptoms reported were lethargy,tiredness, concentration difficulties and headache reported by over http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Scandinavian Journal of Pain de Gruyter

Effects of habituation to the testing facility on mechanical nociceptive thresholds of pigs

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de Gruyter
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© 2015 Scandinavian Association for the Study of Pain
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1877-8860
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10.1016/j.sjpain.2015.04.008
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Abstract

Abstracts / Scandinavian Journal of Pain 8 (2015) 47–54Effects of habituation to the testing facility onmechanical nociceptive thresholds of pigsP. Di Giminiani a , J.S. Stausholm a , E. Viitasaari b ,L.J. Petersen c , M.S. Herskin a,∗aDepartment of Animal Science, AU-FOULUM,Aarhus University, Tjele, Denmarkb Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University ofHelsinki, Helsinki, Finlandc Department of Nuclear Medicine, AalborgUniversity Hospital, Aalborg, DenmarkE-mail address:Pierpaolo.Di-Giminiani@newcastle.ac.uk (P. DiGiminiani).Aims: This study aimed to gain methodological knowledgeabout quantification of mechanical nociceptive thresholds in pigsstimulated on the hind legs.Methods: Thirty-two castrated male pigs were used, weighing 50–60 kg, 16 weeks of age and housed in standard pens(4.40 m × 4.40 m) with ad libitum access to water and feed. Mechanical nociceptive testing (4 stimulations/pig) was done by anelectronic von Frey anesthesiometer (IITC Life Science Inc., CA)with a rigid, hollow plastic tip (cut-off: 1000 gf) and an area of0.3 mm2 . Stimulations targeted caudal aspects of the metatarsuswhile the pigs were restrained in a cage measuring 35 cm × 40 cm(length × width). During the last 3d before nociceptive testing, halfof the pigs were habituated to the experimental set-up twice daily.Results: Across the three days, the habituation procedure ledto a reduction in time required to approach and release the pigsfrom the home pen (P < 0.05) and to increased acceptance ofthe confinement (P < 0.01). The habituated animals had a lowermechanical nociceptive threshold (median: 495 gf (302–675) vs745 gf (479–1000); P < 0.05), and a decreased occurrence of censored observations (0 vs 25%; P < 0.05) compared to animals testedwithout habituation.Conclusions: The present experiment focussed on methodological aspects of hand-held tests of mechanical nociceptivethresholds in pigs. The results show that the pigs responded to a3-day habituation regime by increased ease of handling and tolerance of being confined in a test cage. In addition, habituationto the test environment and handling led to reduced mechanicalnociceptive thresholds as well as a lowered proportion of censoredobservations. The current results reiterate the value of habituationin research involving animal behaviour. Further characterization ofthe methodology is needed to allow its application in the evaluationof clinical conditions in pigs.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjpain.2015.04.008Chronic nonmalignant pain at amono-disciplinary pain clinic. Identifying thekey patient groups for targeted healthpromotion – A cohort studyC. HansenClinic of Neuroanesthesiology, Rigshospitalet,Glostrup, DenmarkE-mail address: carrinna.hansen.01@regionh.dk.Aims: To identify and describe the most common category ofpatients in a newly established mono-disciplinary pain clinic, inorder to plan, test, evaluate and implement targeted health promotion interventions.Methods: The study was a register-based retrospective cohortstudy comprising data from the hospital registration system49GS!open. Including chronic non-malignant pain patients in theperiod January 1st 2013 to December 31st 2014; analysing onlypatients who underwent a treatment trajectory by the monodisciplinary pain clinic.Results: The study population consisted of 300 men and 509women, mean age 53.6 year. By descriptive statistics the threemajor patient groups was identified: (1) Long lasting/chronic nonmalignant pain – comprising 52% of the cohort, representing 37%male, mean age 54.9 year, mainly labeled nonspecific back pain;(2) Other chronic pain – representing 15% of the cohort, comprising45% male, mean age 56.0 year; (3) Reflex dystrophy – comprising8% of the cohort, with 30% male, mean age 43.6 year. The clinic had4.161 outpatient consultations in the period with an increase of13.9% from 2013 to 2014; average consultation rate per individualwas 5.2 for women both years; for men the average was 5.1 in 2013and 4.9 in 2014. In addition, the pain clinic patients were referredfrom: hospital (89.3%); hospital waiting trajectory (1.7%); generalpractitioner (7.3%) and practitioner specialist (1.7%).Conclusions: This register-based study revealed that patientswith nonspecific back pain were the most frequent patient categorytreated in the mono-disciplinary pain clinic. This finding suggeststhat targeted health promotion intervention may advantageouslybe organized with focus on the large group of patients with chronicnonspecific back pain.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjpain.2015.04.009Characterization of complex chronic painpatientsE.-B. Hysing ∗ , T. Gordh, R. Karlsten, L. SmithMultidisciplinary Pain Center, Uppsala UniversityHospital, Uppsala, SwedenE-mail address: Eva-Britt.Hysing@akademiska.se(E.-B. Hysing).Aims: Treatment of the most complex chronic pain patients,often not accepted in regular pain management programs, remainsa challenge. To be able to design interventions for these patients wemust know what characterize them. The aim of this study was tocharacterize a subgroup of pain patients, treated in our in-patientrehabilitation programme, organized at the University Hospital inUppsala, the only tertiary treatment for pain patients in Sweden.Methods: The study was approved by the Regional EthicalReview Board in Uppsala (Dnr 2010/182). Seventy-two patients,consecutive new referrals seen at the rehabilitation program in2008–2010 were enrolled and examined with a 41-item questionnaire of symptoms other than pain. The 41 symptoms werelisted on an ordinal scale from 0–10, with 0–no problems and10–severe problem. The mean pain intensity within the preceding 24-h was assessed using an 11-point NRS, numeric rating scalefrom 0–no problems to 10–severe problems. Information aboutdrug-consumption was obtained from the medical record. The opioid medication was translated to morphine-equivalents dos usingEAPC (European Association for Palliative Care) conversion table.Results: Seventy-two patients were enrolled and screened, 39%men and 61% woman. Median age 45 years (range 20–70). Seventyfour percent of patients were treated with opioids, 15 patients withmore than one opioid. They all reported high pain intensity, the fourpatients with doses over 150 mg MEq reported pain 5–8. There wasno correlation between the dose of opioids and pain intensity. Thepatients reported 22 symptoms (median) other than pain. The number of symptoms reported using this scale in a normal population isthree–four. The most common symptoms reported were lethargy,tiredness, concentration difficulties and headache reported by over

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Scandinavian Journal of Painde Gruyter

Published: Jul 1, 2015

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