AbstractBackground and aimsPatients with chronic neck pain can present with disability, low quality of life, psychological factors and clinical symptoms. It is unclear whether patients with a traumatic onset differ from those with a non-traumatic onset, by having more complex and severe symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical presentation of chronic neck pain patients with and without traumatic onset by examining cervical mobility, sensorimotor function, cervical muscle performance and pressure pain threshold in addition to the following self-reported characteristics: quality of life, neck pain and function, kinesiophobia, depression, and pain bothersomeness.MethodsThis cross-sectional study included 200 participants with chronic neck pain:120 with traumatic onset and 80 with non-traumatic onset. Participants were recruited from physiotherapy clinics in primary and secondary health care. For participants to be included, they were required to be at least 18 years of age, have had neck pain for at least 6 months, and experienced neck-related activity limitation as determined by a score of at least 10 on the Neck Disability Index. We conducted the following clinical tests of cervical range of motion, gaze stability, eye movement, cranio-cervical flexion, cervical extensors, and pressure painthreshold.The participants completed the following questionnaires: physical and mental component summary of the Short Form Health Survey, EuroQol-5D, Neck Disability Index, Patient-Specific Functional Scale, Pain Bothersomeness, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and TAMPA scale of kinesiophobia. The level of significance for all analyses was defined as p < 0.01. Differences between groups for the continuous data were determined using either a Student’s, t-test or Mann Whitney U-test.ResultsIn both groups, the majority of the participants were female (approximately 75%). Age, educational level, working situation and sleeping patterns were similar in both groups. The traumatic group had symptoms for a shorter duration (88 vs.138 months p = 0.001).Participants in the traumatic group showed worse results on all measures compared with those in the non-traumatic group, significantly on neck muscle function (cervical extension mobility p = 0.005, craniocervical flexion test p = 0.007, cervical extensor test p = 0.006) and cervical pressure pain threshold bilateral (p = 0.002/0.004), as well on self-reported function (Neck Disability Index p = 0.001 and Patient-Specific Functional Scale p = 0.007), mental quality of life (mental component summary of the Short Form Health Survey p = 0.004 and EuroQol-5D p = 0.001) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II p = 0.001).ConclusionsThis study showed significant differences between chronic neck pain patients when differentiated into groups based on their onset of pain. However, no specific clinical test or self-reported characteristic could differentiate between the groups at an individual patient level.ImplicationsPressure pain threshold tests, cervical muscle performance tests and patient-reported characteristics about self-perceived function and psychological factors may assist in profilingchronic neck pain patients. The need for more intensive management of those with a traumatic onset compared with those with a non-traumatic onset should be examined further.
Scandinavian Journal of Pain – de Gruyter
Published: Jan 1, 2017
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