An investigation into enlarging and reducing the size of mirror reflections of the hand on experimentally-induced cold-pressor pain in healthy human participants

An investigation into enlarging and reducing the size of mirror reflections of the hand on... AbstractBackground and aimsMirror visual feedback may be a useful clinical tool for reducing pain. Research suggests that reducing the size of a non-painful reflected hand can alleviate complex regional pain syndrome in the affected hand that is out of view. In contrast, research on healthy humans exposed to experimentally induced pain suggests that reducing the appearance of the size of a reflected body part can increase pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of enlarging and reducing the visual appearance of the size of a hand using mirror visual feedback on pain threshold, intensity and tolerance in healthy human participants exposed to cold-pressor pain.MethodsParticipants were a convenience sample of 20 unpaid, healthy pain free volunteers aged 18 years or above. Each participant took part in one experiment where they completed cold-pressor pain tests whilst observing normal, enlarged and reduced size reflections of a hand congruent to a hand immersed in the ice cold water. A 4 × 2 factorial repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on time to pain threshold and pain tolerance, and pain intensity with Condition (four levels: no reflection, reduced reflection, normal reflection, enlarged reflection) being the within-subject factors and Sex (two levels: female, male) between-subject factors.ResultsThere were no significant effects for Condition, Sex, or Condition × Sex interaction for pain threshold, intensity or tolerance (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences between the 3 mirror reflection conditions for agreement with the statements: “It felt like I was looking directly at my hand rather than at a mirror image”; “It felt like the hand I was looking at was my hand”; and “Did it seem like the hand you saw was a right hand or a left hand?”.ConclusionEnlarging or reducing the size of a hand using mirror visual feedback did not alter pain perception in healthy human participants exposed to cold-pressor pain. The different sizes of hands generated by mirror visual feedback created an illusion of looking at their own hand but this was not as strong as looking directly at the hand.ImplicationsIn future, investigators and clinicians using mirror visual feedback may consider including an adaptive phase to ensure the reflection has been perceptually embodied. Reasons for the lack of effects are explored to inspire further research in the field. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Scandinavian Journal of Pain de Gruyter

An investigation into enlarging and reducing the size of mirror reflections of the hand on experimentally-induced cold-pressor pain in healthy human participants

Loading next page...
 
/lp/degruyter/an-investigation-into-enlarging-and-reducing-the-size-of-mirror-eieeU2TPKN
Publisher
De Gruyter
Copyright
© 2015 Scandinavian Association for the Study of Pain
ISSN
1877-8860
eISSN
1877-8879
D.O.I.
10.1016/j.sjpain.2015.07.003
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

AbstractBackground and aimsMirror visual feedback may be a useful clinical tool for reducing pain. Research suggests that reducing the size of a non-painful reflected hand can alleviate complex regional pain syndrome in the affected hand that is out of view. In contrast, research on healthy humans exposed to experimentally induced pain suggests that reducing the appearance of the size of a reflected body part can increase pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of enlarging and reducing the visual appearance of the size of a hand using mirror visual feedback on pain threshold, intensity and tolerance in healthy human participants exposed to cold-pressor pain.MethodsParticipants were a convenience sample of 20 unpaid, healthy pain free volunteers aged 18 years or above. Each participant took part in one experiment where they completed cold-pressor pain tests whilst observing normal, enlarged and reduced size reflections of a hand congruent to a hand immersed in the ice cold water. A 4 × 2 factorial repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on time to pain threshold and pain tolerance, and pain intensity with Condition (four levels: no reflection, reduced reflection, normal reflection, enlarged reflection) being the within-subject factors and Sex (two levels: female, male) between-subject factors.ResultsThere were no significant effects for Condition, Sex, or Condition × Sex interaction for pain threshold, intensity or tolerance (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences between the 3 mirror reflection conditions for agreement with the statements: “It felt like I was looking directly at my hand rather than at a mirror image”; “It felt like the hand I was looking at was my hand”; and “Did it seem like the hand you saw was a right hand or a left hand?”.ConclusionEnlarging or reducing the size of a hand using mirror visual feedback did not alter pain perception in healthy human participants exposed to cold-pressor pain. The different sizes of hands generated by mirror visual feedback created an illusion of looking at their own hand but this was not as strong as looking directly at the hand.ImplicationsIn future, investigators and clinicians using mirror visual feedback may consider including an adaptive phase to ensure the reflection has been perceptually embodied. Reasons for the lack of effects are explored to inspire further research in the field.

Journal

Scandinavian Journal of Painde Gruyter

Published: Dec 29, 2017

There are no references for this article.

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

Monthly Plan

  • Read unlimited articles
  • Personalized recommendations
  • No expiration
  • Print 20 pages per month
  • 20% off on PDF purchases
  • Organize your research
  • Get updates on your journals and topic searches

$49/month

Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial

Best Deal — 39% off

Annual Plan

  • All the features of the Professional Plan, but for 39% off!
  • Billed annually
  • No expiration
  • For the normal price of 10 articles elsewhere, you get one full year of unlimited access to articles.

$588

$360/year

billed annually
Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial