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Using a different growth medium greatly improves distinction of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans strains by the cellular fatty acids and aldehydes profiles

Using a different growth medium greatly improves distinction of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and... doi:10.2478/v10014-011-0009-5 COBISS: 1.01 Agris category code: L51 masa ZOreC 1, masa vOdOvnIK 2, romana mArInSeK LOgAr 2 received October 22, 2010; accepted december 21, 2010. delo je prispelo 22. oktobra 2010, sprejeto 21. decembra 2010. Using a different growth medium greatly improves distinction of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans sains by the cellular fatty acids and aldehydes profiles A total of 11 ruminal sains currently assigned to Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans were cultivated in two different media, rumen fluid containing and short-chain fatty acid (SCfA) containing m330, and their cellular fatty acid methyl esters (fAme) and dimethylacetals (dmA) were analyzed using gas chromatography. A comparison of the fAme/dmA compositions revealed that the difference in SCfA contents in the growth medium induced a pronounced quantitative effect on the cellular branched-chain fatty acid and aldehydes proportions only in the P. xylanivorans sains. This study shows that fAme/dmA analysis is a powerful chemotaxonomic tool in the group of phenotypically similar rumen butyrivibria especially when the influence of the growth medium is evaluated. Key words: microbiology / anaerobic bacteria / rumen / Butyrivibrio / Pseudobutyrivibrio / fAme / dmA Uporaba razlicnih gojisc bistveno olajsa locevanje sevov Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens in Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans na osnovi profilov mascobnih kislin in aldehidov Skupno smo gojili 11 vampnih sevov iz vrst Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens in Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans v dveh razlicnih gojiscih: v z vampnim sokom in v m330 z mesanico kratkoveriznih mascobnih kislin (SCfA). S plinsko kromatografijo smo analizirali njihove metilne ese celicnih mascobnih kislin (fAme) in dimetilacetale (dmA). primerjava sestave fAme/ dmA je razkrila, da razlika v vsebnosti SCfA v gojiscu povzroci izrazit kvantitativen ucinek na deleze celicnih razvejanih mascobnih kislin in aldehidov le pri sevih vrste P. xylanivorans. nasa raziskava dokazuje, da lahko fAme/dmA analizo ucinkovito uporabljamo v kemotaksonomiji fenotipsko podobnih butirivibrijev z useznim ovrednotenjem vpliva gojisca. Kljucne besede: mikrobiologija / anaerobne bakterije / vamp / Butyrivibrio / Pseudobutyrivibrio / fAme / dmA INODUCTION The Butyrivibrio group of bacteria comprises grampositive anaerobic butyrate-producing rods isolated mainly from the rumen of cattle and sheep. Although butyrivibrios are phenotypically very coherent, phylogenetic analyses revealed their polyphyletic origin (willems et al., 1996) and currently five rumen species are asserted: Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, B. hungatei, B. proteoclasticus, Pseudobutyrivibrio ruminis and P. xylanivorans (Bryant and Small, 1956; van gylswyk et al., 1996; Kopecný et al., 2003; moon et al., 2008). The analysis of long-chain fatty acids (fA) is frequently used method in bacterial chemo- taxonomy as it is rapid and simple, and the results are usually in accordance with the results of genotypic analyses (vandamme et al., 1996). taxonomic significance is based on their highly regulated synthesis and the cellular fA composition is defined by the type of multienzyme complex present which gives a stabile profile in a particular sain (Lu et al., 2004). Cellular fA composition is affected also by environmental factors, but these effects can either be avoided with the standardization of growth conditions or adequately evaluated. In the anaerobic bacteria a special class of membrane lipids, plasmalogens, is present that bear an etherlinked alkyl chain at the sn-1 position of glycerol (lately 1 Univ. of Ljubljana, Biotechnical fac., dept. of Animal Science, groblje 3, SI-1230 domzale, Slovenia, ph.d., e-mail: masa.zorec@bf.uni-lj.si 2 Same address as 1, ph.d. Acta argiculturae Slovenica, 98/1, 15­19, Ljubljana 2011 m. ZOreC et al. reviewed by goldfine, 2010). during the methylation step for the gas chromatography (gC) analysis these fatty aldehydes are converted to dimethyl acetals (dmA). fatty aldehyde composition usually mirrors that of the fA (goldfine and panos, 1971). The role of fatty aldehydes in bacterial cell membrane is still not clear: it was proposed that they serve as an additional path for nAdh regeneration and can be protective against reactive oxygen species (paltauf, 1994). membrane branched-chain fA are synthesized from two types of precursors: most of bacteria use branchedchain amino acids, but some ruminal species are capable of utilizing exogenously supplied branched-chain SCfA (Kaneda, 1991). In this study we wish to ascertain whether we could selectively manipulate cellular fA and aldehyde composition of the sains by feeding precursors that favoured the production of branched-chain fA. It was shown previously that in the B. fibrisolvens type sain the fA and aldehyde composition did not changed substantially when the cells were grown in the presence of SCfA (moore et al., 1994). Using a different media was also successfully applied in the differentiation of Bacillus anthracis and B. cereus sains (Lawrence et al., 1991). Table 2: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) content (mM) in the growth media Preglednica 2: Vsebnost kratkoveriznih mascobnih kislin (mM) v gojiscu SCfA content (mm) acetic acid propionic acid butyric acid valeric acid iso-butyric acid iso-valeric acid 22.3 4.4 2.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 m330 40.1 8.4 4.5 0.9 1.1 1.7 MATERIALS AND METHODS Bacteria were grown at 37 °C under anaerobic conditions in a rumen fluid containing growth medium and dSmZ medium 330 without rumen fluid. In m330 mixture of SCfA was added instead of rumen fluid (1.7 mL/L of acetic acid, 0.6 mL/L of propionic acid, 0.4 mL/L of butyric acid and 0.1 mL/L of valeric, iso-butyric, isoTable 1: List of bacterial sains Preglednica 1: Seznam bakterijskih sevov species Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens sain 3071t LfO5 JK642 LfO4 JK651 Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans mz5t Ce51 JK663 LfO3 dSm 10317 dSm 10296 mz8 isolated by m.p. Bryant L. fanedl J. Kopecný L. fanedl J. Kopecný m. Zorec n.O. van gylswyk J. Kopecný L. fanedl n.O. van gylswyk J.m. Leatherwood m. Zorec valeric and dL-2-methyl-buyic acid each). The gC analysis of SCfA in the growth media is shown in table 2. Samples were prepared from freeze dried cells of the overnight cultures. for fAme/dmA gC analysis their methyl esters were prepared (dionisi, 1999). The method with hCl in methanol was chosen where freezedried cells were ansferred into hach tube and 500 µL of hexane was added. The sample was then ansesterified using 1 mL of methanolic hydrochloric acid (1.5m) and 1 mL of methanol at 80 °C for 10 min. The reaction was stopped in ice-cold water. 2 mL of miliQ water was added and vigorously shaken for 1 min. The upper organic phase was ansferred to gC vial, flushed with niogen gas and stored at -20 °C until analysis. A Shimadzu gC14A gas chromatograph equipped with a flame-ionization detector was used. helium was used as carrier gas. An equity-1 capillary column (30 m length, 0.25 mm i.d.) coated with 100% poly-dimethyl-siloxane (0.25 µm film thickness) was purchased from Supelco (28045-U). The column was operated at 150 °C for 4 min, and then the temperature was increased at 4 °C/min to 250 °C and held for 10 min. One microliter of each sample solution was manually injected. The peaks were recorded with Shimadzu Chromatopac C-r6A integrator. The components were quantified through their relative peak areas and identified by their equivalent chain length (eCL) factors (mjøs, 2003). for reference standard calibration mixes were used (BAme, Supelco, 47080-U and dmA C16:0, Sigma, h7391). RESULTS AND DICUSSION The fAme/dmA profiles of the tested sains were very complex consisting of more than 20 different components (table 3). In rumen fluid medium the most prevalent fAme/dmA in both species were C16:0, dmA C18:1 c11, dmA C16:0 and dmA C16:1 c9. Their pro- Table 3: Fatty acid and aldehyde (FAME/DMA) profiles for B. fibrisolvens and P. xylanivorans sains in different growth media Preglednica 3: Profili mascobnih kislin in aldehidov sevov B. fibrisolvens in P. xylanivorans v razlicnih gojiscih fatty acid/aldehyde proportions, % C14:0 dmA C14:0 C15:0 dmA C15:0 C16:0 dmA C16:0 C17:0 dmA C17:0 C18:0 dmA C18:0 sum saturated C16:1c9 dmA C16:1 c9 C16:1c11 dmA C16:1 c11 C17:1 c11 dmA C17:1 c11 C17:1 c13 C18:1 c11 dmA C18:1 c11 sum unsaturated i-C15:0 dmA i-C15:0 dmA a-C15:0 i-C17:0 dmA i-C17:0 a-C17:0 dmA a-C17:0 0.9 0.6 nd 0.7 nd 0.9 1.3 1.3 1.9 nd 0.8 1.1 1.3 2.0 nd nd 1.6 0.8 0.5 1.2 0.7 0.8 2.1 0.7 0.8 2.7 0.6 0.7 2.2 0.8 0.8 2.0 sain / growth medium 35.5* 35.2* 11.8* 4.7 32.7* 38.6* 14.9* 3.5 27.2* 13.6* 2.7 21.5* 32.7* 14.0* 2.7 23.2* 11.2* 7.0* 5.2* 0.7 30.3* 16.4* 1.4 29.5* 16.2* 2.2 36.2* 10.3* 2.1 16.8* 27.4* 3.4 4.4 1.5 5.1* 1.6 1.9 4.5 2.3 3.5 1.2 3.5 nd nd 1.9 2.3 2.2 nd 2.5 1.4 3.0 3.3 55.0 34.1 49.8 38.5 2.9 nd 34.3 1.4 0.9 nd nd 2.6 2.4 52.9 1.4 3.2 nd nd 35.5 nd 1.8 6.9* 2.0 8.4* 2.4 6.4* 1.6 1.5 2.1 2.2 57.9 0.9 6.5* 0.9 nd 1.6 1.7 1.1 nd 5.4* 1.5 49.8 1.5 1.3 nd 1.7 1.7 1.3 nd 32.7* 14.4* 29.2* 14.9* 25.3* 14.4* 29.0* 16.3* 6.4* 1.6 0.6 1.3 2.1 58.8 2.4 7.2* 1.7 2.7 2.6 3.7 0.6 nd nd 33.7 nd 1.8 0.7 1.3 1.3 0.5 0.9 0.8 1.1 0.8 1.0 0.7 0.7 0.9 2.5 2.5 67.4 0.6 3.8 1.1 0.9 1.2 3.3 3.9 0.9 1.6 1.0 1.0 0.8 1.3 1.1 1.0 2.4 0.8 0.8 2.4 0.8 1.9 0.9 1.9 1.0 1.6 0.9 0.7 56.4 5.8* 9.7* 0.9 0.7 1.3 0.9 2.1 2.2 58.9 5.3* 7.6* 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.9 nd 4.6 1.0 0.8 1.4 2.3 0.8 3.4 1.1 3.2 0.8 3.9 0.8 0.6 63.0 1.2 3.6 1.0 1.3 6.6* 0.7 1.0 1.5 2.1 2.5 65.3 2.8 5.7* 0.9 0.6 0.9 2.8 1.2 8.2 8.6 11.2 9.4* 8.2* 4.2 2.1 0.9 54.6 1.4 2.5 0.9 2.5 5.4* 0.6 4.8 11.1 1.9 2.7 2.7 57.1 3.7 5.1* 1.5 0.8 1.7 3.5 nd 5.3* 11.4 36.1 26.8 0.7 28.6 36.3 0.5 38.6 9.8* 20.5 1.0 4.4 1.6 5.3* 29.0 2.6 11.8* 28.6 1.4 12.3* 27.4 1.8 2.6 3.9 3.3 10.3* 32.6 2.1 20.0* 38.8 1.3 2.3 0.7 1.2 70.7 0.5 3.5 0.6 0.8 2.2 nd 2.2 11.4 24.2 0.5 35.9 0.7 7.1* 1.4 0.6 2.4 3.1 51.9 0.7 3.3 1.1 1.0 0.6 1.1 nd 5.3* 24.8 41.7 0.8 nd nd nd nd nd nd 3.0 2.2 3.3 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.0 1.0 1.0 62.5 2.3 0.5 1.2 2.6 nd 3.6 14.3 30.1 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.9 0.9 14.9 8.8* 11.0* 2.2 1.0 0.9 1.3 15.5 8.3* 17.5* 2.2 0.8 8.5* 1.4 0.6 2.7 3.3 54.8 1.2 0.9 0.8 0.7 1.0 ndb 6.8* 24.5* 41.8 0.9 3.3 1.8 1.6 0.9 2.8 0.6 1.7 0.6 1.6 2.3 1.2 1.4 2.3 1.6 2.7 B. fibrisolvens 3.2 7.0 5.3 5.1 5.2 8.3 5.6 7.6 3.4 3.6 0.7 11.9 14.7 6.7 * 13.7* 2.2 14.4* 5.8 * 3.6 6.2* 3.0 5.0* 14.3 6.9* 19.4* 1.9 11.9* 3.9 15.4 9.1* 13.4* 2.3 11.3* 3.5 8.8* 4.4 12.1 7.0* 19.4* 2.1 12.5* 3.1 1.6 50.7 9.3 0.6 34.9 0.6 11.1 1.0 50.4 0.7 11.9 1.1 47.8 0.7 12.0 1.2 49.3 0.7 11.0 0.6 49.3 3071t a LfO5 JK642 LfO4 JK651 8.6* 11.5 P. xylanivorans mz5t Ce51 6.2* 2.2 12.4* 5.1* 16.7* LfO3 5.5* 1.7 dSm10317 5.7* 2.3 dSm10296 6.7* 4.4 5.5* 2.0 mz8 6.5* 2.1 USIng A dIfferent grOwth medIUm greAtLy ImprOveS dIStInCtIOn ... fAtty ACIdS And ALdehydeS prOfILeS ­ , ace amounts (<0.5%); ­ nd, not determined; * ­ major fAme/dmA sum branched m. ZOreC et al. portions were above or closely to 5% in all of the analyzed sains. Additionally, in the B. fibrisolvens sains C18:1 c11 was identified as the major fA (except in the sain LfO4). when comparing the sum proportions, saight-chain saturated and unsaturated fAme/dmA amounts were similar in both species, while branched chain fAme/dmA were slightly more abundant in P. xylanivorans sains (on average B. fibrisolvens 4.5% and P. xylanivorans 11.2%). Although the sum proportion of branched-chain fA and aldehydes between the species is statistically significant (p<0.0001), the differentiation of the species by the major fA and aldehydes is impossible. Therefore, the sains were grown in medium m330 with higher amounts of SCfA (table 2) in order to induce changes in the proportions of the major fA and aldehydes. In the B. fibrisolvens sains the fA and aldehyde profiles remains stable, with slight increase of odd-numbered fA and aldehydes due to larger amounts of propionic and valeric acid in the growth medium (Ingram et al., 1977). On the other hand, in the P. xylanivorans sains higher amounts of SCfA in the growth medium provoked marked increase in the branched chain fAme/dmA proportions with corresponding decrease in saight chain fAme/dmA. Interestingly, the sum of branched chain fA and aldehydes increased at the same extent as the concenation of SCfA in the growth medium. This demonsates that in the P. xylanivorans sains SCfA in the medium serve as direct precursors for the synthesis of the membrane fA and aldehydes (Kaneda, 1991). In P. xylanivorans palmitic acid (C16:0) remains major constituent, but its proportion was halved in all sains. As major fA and aldehydes dmA i-C15:0, i-C17:0 and i-C15:0 were also identified. The increase in odd-numbered saight chain saturated fA and aldehydes (C15:0, dmA C15:0, C17:0) was seen with their even-numbered counterparts decrease (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0 and corresponding aldehydes). The proportions of all unsaturated fAme/dmA were lower comparing with cells grown in rumen fluid supplemented medium. Cellular fA manipulation with growth medium composition can be exploited in many ways. rosen and hackette (1972) altered E. coli outer membrane to release more enzymes after osmotic shock in oleate-supplemented medium. recently, Listeria monocytogenes impaired growth at refrigeration temperatures was achieved by growing cells in SCfA enriched medium (Julotok et al., 2010). Increased production of exacellular endoglucanase and exoglucanase, enzymes of cellulase complex, in fungus Neurospora crassa was succeeded also by adding oleic acid (yazdi et al., 1990). In our case, the sains of P. xylanivorans produce highly active xylanases that have biotechnological potential (Cepeljnik et al., 2003). re18 sults of this study suggest that the membrane fA composition of the P. xylanivorans sains is dependent on the growth conditions and therefore release of xylanases to the exacellular maix can be facilitated by decreasing membrane fluidity with growing in branched SCfA enriched medium. The effect of the SCfA in the growth medium is shown in the sains of two species. for the taxonomical purposes further analysis in other butyrivibrio-like species is needed to show whether SCfA-dependence is the genus ait. CONCLUSIONS Based on above mentioned results we can conclude that the growth media with higher branched SCfA content is more suitable for the differentiation between B. fibrisolvens and P. xylanivorans. Only the later species increases the content of branched fA and aldehyde in its cellular profiles and differentiation is facilitated by identifying only a few major fA and aldehydes. namely, the major cellular fA and aldehydes in SCfA-supplemented growth medium are in B. fibrisolvens sains C16:0 (29.6% ± 7.4%), dmA C16:0 (12.7% ± 2.8%) and dmA C18:1 c11 (11.3% ± 2.0%), and in P. xylanivorans sains C16:0 (15.5% ± 1.2%), dmA i-C15:0 (15.7% ± 3.5%), i-C17:0 (10.9% ± 2.9%) and i-C15:0 (7.8% ± 1.1%). http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Acta Agriculturae Slovenica de Gruyter

Using a different growth medium greatly improves distinction of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans strains by the cellular fatty acids and aldehydes profiles

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de Gruyter
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Abstract

doi:10.2478/v10014-011-0009-5 COBISS: 1.01 Agris category code: L51 masa ZOreC 1, masa vOdOvnIK 2, romana mArInSeK LOgAr 2 received October 22, 2010; accepted december 21, 2010. delo je prispelo 22. oktobra 2010, sprejeto 21. decembra 2010. Using a different growth medium greatly improves distinction of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans sains by the cellular fatty acids and aldehydes profiles A total of 11 ruminal sains currently assigned to Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans were cultivated in two different media, rumen fluid containing and short-chain fatty acid (SCfA) containing m330, and their cellular fatty acid methyl esters (fAme) and dimethylacetals (dmA) were analyzed using gas chromatography. A comparison of the fAme/dmA compositions revealed that the difference in SCfA contents in the growth medium induced a pronounced quantitative effect on the cellular branched-chain fatty acid and aldehydes proportions only in the P. xylanivorans sains. This study shows that fAme/dmA analysis is a powerful chemotaxonomic tool in the group of phenotypically similar rumen butyrivibria especially when the influence of the growth medium is evaluated. Key words: microbiology / anaerobic bacteria / rumen / Butyrivibrio / Pseudobutyrivibrio / fAme / dmA Uporaba razlicnih gojisc bistveno olajsa locevanje sevov Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens in Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans na osnovi profilov mascobnih kislin in aldehidov Skupno smo gojili 11 vampnih sevov iz vrst Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens in Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans v dveh razlicnih gojiscih: v z vampnim sokom in v m330 z mesanico kratkoveriznih mascobnih kislin (SCfA). S plinsko kromatografijo smo analizirali njihove metilne ese celicnih mascobnih kislin (fAme) in dimetilacetale (dmA). primerjava sestave fAme/ dmA je razkrila, da razlika v vsebnosti SCfA v gojiscu povzroci izrazit kvantitativen ucinek na deleze celicnih razvejanih mascobnih kislin in aldehidov le pri sevih vrste P. xylanivorans. nasa raziskava dokazuje, da lahko fAme/dmA analizo ucinkovito uporabljamo v kemotaksonomiji fenotipsko podobnih butirivibrijev z useznim ovrednotenjem vpliva gojisca. Kljucne besede: mikrobiologija / anaerobne bakterije / vamp / Butyrivibrio / Pseudobutyrivibrio / fAme / dmA INODUCTION The Butyrivibrio group of bacteria comprises grampositive anaerobic butyrate-producing rods isolated mainly from the rumen of cattle and sheep. Although butyrivibrios are phenotypically very coherent, phylogenetic analyses revealed their polyphyletic origin (willems et al., 1996) and currently five rumen species are asserted: Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, B. hungatei, B. proteoclasticus, Pseudobutyrivibrio ruminis and P. xylanivorans (Bryant and Small, 1956; van gylswyk et al., 1996; Kopecný et al., 2003; moon et al., 2008). The analysis of long-chain fatty acids (fA) is frequently used method in bacterial chemo- taxonomy as it is rapid and simple, and the results are usually in accordance with the results of genotypic analyses (vandamme et al., 1996). taxonomic significance is based on their highly regulated synthesis and the cellular fA composition is defined by the type of multienzyme complex present which gives a stabile profile in a particular sain (Lu et al., 2004). Cellular fA composition is affected also by environmental factors, but these effects can either be avoided with the standardization of growth conditions or adequately evaluated. In the anaerobic bacteria a special class of membrane lipids, plasmalogens, is present that bear an etherlinked alkyl chain at the sn-1 position of glycerol (lately 1 Univ. of Ljubljana, Biotechnical fac., dept. of Animal Science, groblje 3, SI-1230 domzale, Slovenia, ph.d., e-mail: masa.zorec@bf.uni-lj.si 2 Same address as 1, ph.d. Acta argiculturae Slovenica, 98/1, 15­19, Ljubljana 2011 m. ZOreC et al. reviewed by goldfine, 2010). during the methylation step for the gas chromatography (gC) analysis these fatty aldehydes are converted to dimethyl acetals (dmA). fatty aldehyde composition usually mirrors that of the fA (goldfine and panos, 1971). The role of fatty aldehydes in bacterial cell membrane is still not clear: it was proposed that they serve as an additional path for nAdh regeneration and can be protective against reactive oxygen species (paltauf, 1994). membrane branched-chain fA are synthesized from two types of precursors: most of bacteria use branchedchain amino acids, but some ruminal species are capable of utilizing exogenously supplied branched-chain SCfA (Kaneda, 1991). In this study we wish to ascertain whether we could selectively manipulate cellular fA and aldehyde composition of the sains by feeding precursors that favoured the production of branched-chain fA. It was shown previously that in the B. fibrisolvens type sain the fA and aldehyde composition did not changed substantially when the cells were grown in the presence of SCfA (moore et al., 1994). Using a different media was also successfully applied in the differentiation of Bacillus anthracis and B. cereus sains (Lawrence et al., 1991). Table 2: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) content (mM) in the growth media Preglednica 2: Vsebnost kratkoveriznih mascobnih kislin (mM) v gojiscu SCfA content (mm) acetic acid propionic acid butyric acid valeric acid iso-butyric acid iso-valeric acid 22.3 4.4 2.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 m330 40.1 8.4 4.5 0.9 1.1 1.7 MATERIALS AND METHODS Bacteria were grown at 37 °C under anaerobic conditions in a rumen fluid containing growth medium and dSmZ medium 330 without rumen fluid. In m330 mixture of SCfA was added instead of rumen fluid (1.7 mL/L of acetic acid, 0.6 mL/L of propionic acid, 0.4 mL/L of butyric acid and 0.1 mL/L of valeric, iso-butyric, isoTable 1: List of bacterial sains Preglednica 1: Seznam bakterijskih sevov species Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens sain 3071t LfO5 JK642 LfO4 JK651 Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans mz5t Ce51 JK663 LfO3 dSm 10317 dSm 10296 mz8 isolated by m.p. Bryant L. fanedl J. Kopecný L. fanedl J. Kopecný m. Zorec n.O. van gylswyk J. Kopecný L. fanedl n.O. van gylswyk J.m. Leatherwood m. Zorec valeric and dL-2-methyl-buyic acid each). The gC analysis of SCfA in the growth media is shown in table 2. Samples were prepared from freeze dried cells of the overnight cultures. for fAme/dmA gC analysis their methyl esters were prepared (dionisi, 1999). The method with hCl in methanol was chosen where freezedried cells were ansferred into hach tube and 500 µL of hexane was added. The sample was then ansesterified using 1 mL of methanolic hydrochloric acid (1.5m) and 1 mL of methanol at 80 °C for 10 min. The reaction was stopped in ice-cold water. 2 mL of miliQ water was added and vigorously shaken for 1 min. The upper organic phase was ansferred to gC vial, flushed with niogen gas and stored at -20 °C until analysis. A Shimadzu gC14A gas chromatograph equipped with a flame-ionization detector was used. helium was used as carrier gas. An equity-1 capillary column (30 m length, 0.25 mm i.d.) coated with 100% poly-dimethyl-siloxane (0.25 µm film thickness) was purchased from Supelco (28045-U). The column was operated at 150 °C for 4 min, and then the temperature was increased at 4 °C/min to 250 °C and held for 10 min. One microliter of each sample solution was manually injected. The peaks were recorded with Shimadzu Chromatopac C-r6A integrator. The components were quantified through their relative peak areas and identified by their equivalent chain length (eCL) factors (mjøs, 2003). for reference standard calibration mixes were used (BAme, Supelco, 47080-U and dmA C16:0, Sigma, h7391). RESULTS AND DICUSSION The fAme/dmA profiles of the tested sains were very complex consisting of more than 20 different components (table 3). In rumen fluid medium the most prevalent fAme/dmA in both species were C16:0, dmA C18:1 c11, dmA C16:0 and dmA C16:1 c9. Their pro- Table 3: Fatty acid and aldehyde (FAME/DMA) profiles for B. fibrisolvens and P. xylanivorans sains in different growth media Preglednica 3: Profili mascobnih kislin in aldehidov sevov B. fibrisolvens in P. xylanivorans v razlicnih gojiscih fatty acid/aldehyde proportions, % C14:0 dmA C14:0 C15:0 dmA C15:0 C16:0 dmA C16:0 C17:0 dmA C17:0 C18:0 dmA C18:0 sum saturated C16:1c9 dmA C16:1 c9 C16:1c11 dmA C16:1 c11 C17:1 c11 dmA C17:1 c11 C17:1 c13 C18:1 c11 dmA C18:1 c11 sum unsaturated i-C15:0 dmA i-C15:0 dmA a-C15:0 i-C17:0 dmA i-C17:0 a-C17:0 dmA a-C17:0 0.9 0.6 nd 0.7 nd 0.9 1.3 1.3 1.9 nd 0.8 1.1 1.3 2.0 nd nd 1.6 0.8 0.5 1.2 0.7 0.8 2.1 0.7 0.8 2.7 0.6 0.7 2.2 0.8 0.8 2.0 sain / growth medium 35.5* 35.2* 11.8* 4.7 32.7* 38.6* 14.9* 3.5 27.2* 13.6* 2.7 21.5* 32.7* 14.0* 2.7 23.2* 11.2* 7.0* 5.2* 0.7 30.3* 16.4* 1.4 29.5* 16.2* 2.2 36.2* 10.3* 2.1 16.8* 27.4* 3.4 4.4 1.5 5.1* 1.6 1.9 4.5 2.3 3.5 1.2 3.5 nd nd 1.9 2.3 2.2 nd 2.5 1.4 3.0 3.3 55.0 34.1 49.8 38.5 2.9 nd 34.3 1.4 0.9 nd nd 2.6 2.4 52.9 1.4 3.2 nd nd 35.5 nd 1.8 6.9* 2.0 8.4* 2.4 6.4* 1.6 1.5 2.1 2.2 57.9 0.9 6.5* 0.9 nd 1.6 1.7 1.1 nd 5.4* 1.5 49.8 1.5 1.3 nd 1.7 1.7 1.3 nd 32.7* 14.4* 29.2* 14.9* 25.3* 14.4* 29.0* 16.3* 6.4* 1.6 0.6 1.3 2.1 58.8 2.4 7.2* 1.7 2.7 2.6 3.7 0.6 nd nd 33.7 nd 1.8 0.7 1.3 1.3 0.5 0.9 0.8 1.1 0.8 1.0 0.7 0.7 0.9 2.5 2.5 67.4 0.6 3.8 1.1 0.9 1.2 3.3 3.9 0.9 1.6 1.0 1.0 0.8 1.3 1.1 1.0 2.4 0.8 0.8 2.4 0.8 1.9 0.9 1.9 1.0 1.6 0.9 0.7 56.4 5.8* 9.7* 0.9 0.7 1.3 0.9 2.1 2.2 58.9 5.3* 7.6* 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.9 nd 4.6 1.0 0.8 1.4 2.3 0.8 3.4 1.1 3.2 0.8 3.9 0.8 0.6 63.0 1.2 3.6 1.0 1.3 6.6* 0.7 1.0 1.5 2.1 2.5 65.3 2.8 5.7* 0.9 0.6 0.9 2.8 1.2 8.2 8.6 11.2 9.4* 8.2* 4.2 2.1 0.9 54.6 1.4 2.5 0.9 2.5 5.4* 0.6 4.8 11.1 1.9 2.7 2.7 57.1 3.7 5.1* 1.5 0.8 1.7 3.5 nd 5.3* 11.4 36.1 26.8 0.7 28.6 36.3 0.5 38.6 9.8* 20.5 1.0 4.4 1.6 5.3* 29.0 2.6 11.8* 28.6 1.4 12.3* 27.4 1.8 2.6 3.9 3.3 10.3* 32.6 2.1 20.0* 38.8 1.3 2.3 0.7 1.2 70.7 0.5 3.5 0.6 0.8 2.2 nd 2.2 11.4 24.2 0.5 35.9 0.7 7.1* 1.4 0.6 2.4 3.1 51.9 0.7 3.3 1.1 1.0 0.6 1.1 nd 5.3* 24.8 41.7 0.8 nd nd nd nd nd nd 3.0 2.2 3.3 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.0 1.0 1.0 62.5 2.3 0.5 1.2 2.6 nd 3.6 14.3 30.1 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.9 0.9 14.9 8.8* 11.0* 2.2 1.0 0.9 1.3 15.5 8.3* 17.5* 2.2 0.8 8.5* 1.4 0.6 2.7 3.3 54.8 1.2 0.9 0.8 0.7 1.0 ndb 6.8* 24.5* 41.8 0.9 3.3 1.8 1.6 0.9 2.8 0.6 1.7 0.6 1.6 2.3 1.2 1.4 2.3 1.6 2.7 B. fibrisolvens 3.2 7.0 5.3 5.1 5.2 8.3 5.6 7.6 3.4 3.6 0.7 11.9 14.7 6.7 * 13.7* 2.2 14.4* 5.8 * 3.6 6.2* 3.0 5.0* 14.3 6.9* 19.4* 1.9 11.9* 3.9 15.4 9.1* 13.4* 2.3 11.3* 3.5 8.8* 4.4 12.1 7.0* 19.4* 2.1 12.5* 3.1 1.6 50.7 9.3 0.6 34.9 0.6 11.1 1.0 50.4 0.7 11.9 1.1 47.8 0.7 12.0 1.2 49.3 0.7 11.0 0.6 49.3 3071t a LfO5 JK642 LfO4 JK651 8.6* 11.5 P. xylanivorans mz5t Ce51 6.2* 2.2 12.4* 5.1* 16.7* LfO3 5.5* 1.7 dSm10317 5.7* 2.3 dSm10296 6.7* 4.4 5.5* 2.0 mz8 6.5* 2.1 USIng A dIfferent grOwth medIUm greAtLy ImprOveS dIStInCtIOn ... fAtty ACIdS And ALdehydeS prOfILeS ­ , ace amounts (<0.5%); ­ nd, not determined; * ­ major fAme/dmA sum branched m. ZOreC et al. portions were above or closely to 5% in all of the analyzed sains. Additionally, in the B. fibrisolvens sains C18:1 c11 was identified as the major fA (except in the sain LfO4). when comparing the sum proportions, saight-chain saturated and unsaturated fAme/dmA amounts were similar in both species, while branched chain fAme/dmA were slightly more abundant in P. xylanivorans sains (on average B. fibrisolvens 4.5% and P. xylanivorans 11.2%). Although the sum proportion of branched-chain fA and aldehydes between the species is statistically significant (p<0.0001), the differentiation of the species by the major fA and aldehydes is impossible. Therefore, the sains were grown in medium m330 with higher amounts of SCfA (table 2) in order to induce changes in the proportions of the major fA and aldehydes. In the B. fibrisolvens sains the fA and aldehyde profiles remains stable, with slight increase of odd-numbered fA and aldehydes due to larger amounts of propionic and valeric acid in the growth medium (Ingram et al., 1977). On the other hand, in the P. xylanivorans sains higher amounts of SCfA in the growth medium provoked marked increase in the branched chain fAme/dmA proportions with corresponding decrease in saight chain fAme/dmA. Interestingly, the sum of branched chain fA and aldehydes increased at the same extent as the concenation of SCfA in the growth medium. This demonsates that in the P. xylanivorans sains SCfA in the medium serve as direct precursors for the synthesis of the membrane fA and aldehydes (Kaneda, 1991). In P. xylanivorans palmitic acid (C16:0) remains major constituent, but its proportion was halved in all sains. As major fA and aldehydes dmA i-C15:0, i-C17:0 and i-C15:0 were also identified. The increase in odd-numbered saight chain saturated fA and aldehydes (C15:0, dmA C15:0, C17:0) was seen with their even-numbered counterparts decrease (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0 and corresponding aldehydes). The proportions of all unsaturated fAme/dmA were lower comparing with cells grown in rumen fluid supplemented medium. Cellular fA manipulation with growth medium composition can be exploited in many ways. rosen and hackette (1972) altered E. coli outer membrane to release more enzymes after osmotic shock in oleate-supplemented medium. recently, Listeria monocytogenes impaired growth at refrigeration temperatures was achieved by growing cells in SCfA enriched medium (Julotok et al., 2010). Increased production of exacellular endoglucanase and exoglucanase, enzymes of cellulase complex, in fungus Neurospora crassa was succeeded also by adding oleic acid (yazdi et al., 1990). In our case, the sains of P. xylanivorans produce highly active xylanases that have biotechnological potential (Cepeljnik et al., 2003). re18 sults of this study suggest that the membrane fA composition of the P. xylanivorans sains is dependent on the growth conditions and therefore release of xylanases to the exacellular maix can be facilitated by decreasing membrane fluidity with growing in branched SCfA enriched medium. The effect of the SCfA in the growth medium is shown in the sains of two species. for the taxonomical purposes further analysis in other butyrivibrio-like species is needed to show whether SCfA-dependence is the genus ait. CONCLUSIONS Based on above mentioned results we can conclude that the growth media with higher branched SCfA content is more suitable for the differentiation between B. fibrisolvens and P. xylanivorans. Only the later species increases the content of branched fA and aldehyde in its cellular profiles and differentiation is facilitated by identifying only a few major fA and aldehydes. namely, the major cellular fA and aldehydes in SCfA-supplemented growth medium are in B. fibrisolvens sains C16:0 (29.6% ± 7.4%), dmA C16:0 (12.7% ± 2.8%) and dmA C18:1 c11 (11.3% ± 2.0%), and in P. xylanivorans sains C16:0 (15.5% ± 1.2%), dmA i-C15:0 (15.7% ± 3.5%), i-C17:0 (10.9% ± 2.9%) and i-C15:0 (7.8% ± 1.1%).

Journal

Acta Agriculturae Slovenicade Gruyter

Published: Jul 1, 2011

References