Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

The Implementation of the Conjunction of Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0: A Case Study in the Czech Republic

The Implementation of the Conjunction of Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0: A Case Study in the... As advanced technologies are becoming a natural part of the industrial environment, the influence of these tech- nologies on organizational practices is becoming more expanding. In this paper, an attempt was made to under- stand the conjunction of Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0. The study was conducted in the Czech Republic and qualitative data was gathered from 10 companies. The information on the benefits, weaknesses and challenges of the conjunction was summarized. For the research purposes literature review and qualitative analysis were performed. It was found out that, although the conjunction is connected with challenges, the perspectives are beneficial for industrial companies. The data generated also allowed to introduce the readiness assessment model for the implementation of the conjunction based on 4 categories: technological, managerial, financial and human. This information could be used for theoretical and practical purposes for the creation of a successful Lean Six Sigma pattern in Industry 4.0. Key words: Lean, Six Sigma, Industry 4.0, optimization, technologies INTRODUCTION be shifted in accordance with the demands of the modern The increasing complexity of the contemporary world and world. the development of technologies have led to the emer- It also has been stated that Lean Six Sigma might serve as gence of a new concept called Industry 4.0 or the Fourth a good foundation for Industry 4.0 [1] as it helps to ana- Industrial Revolution. As the fourth industrial revolution is lyze the process and identify the most perspective fields becoming increasingly widespread, the interest towards it for Industry 4.0 implementation. Considering the fact, is also growing. Many specialists and scientists are inter- that many companies have to struggle in the competition, ested in creating the framework for the usage of new this integration is promising as it may help companies to technologies of Industry 4.0. Companies are enthusiastic achieve better results. about introducing new technologies to the production The aim of this research is to analyze the conjunction of processes. So, the need has appeared of evaluating differ- Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 to contribute to a better ent existing techniques, tools and methods from the point understanding of the issue for practitioners and research- of view of their suitability for Industry 4.0. ers. As the research on Lean Six Sigma in Industry 4.0 is in As one of the leading techniques of the last decades has its infancy these results might provide useful insights for become Lean Six Sigma, companies and engineers work- future research. The research is conducted in one of the ing with this methodology are trying to find a way to adapt European countries, namely the Czech Republic, thus the the existing tools to the new challenging environments. results might bring useful information to other countries One of the ways to achieve this goal may become Industry as well. However, the results should be further verified in 4.0 technologies. other countries as well. Despite the similar goals of Lean Six Sigma and Industry This research consists of theoretical analysis of the exist- 4.0 to improve efficiency, their integration has not yet ing literature i.e. the systematic literature review and data been thoroughly analyzed [1]. With the rapid change in gathering from practitioners of Lean Six Sigma and Indus- the environment and advanced improvement of technol- try 4.0 in the form of a Survey. The general amount of par- ogies, the integration of Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 is ticipating companies is 10 (4 large size, 3 middle size and inevitable as Lean Six Sigma tools and principles have to 3 small size). © 2022 Author(s). This is an open access article licensed under the Creative Commons BY 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) 224 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2022, Volume 30, Issue 3 The paper is structured in the following way: first, the the- Industry 4.0 is a term that includes several technologies oretical background of Lean Six Sigma, Industry 4.0 and that are connected with the latest technological advance- their combination is presented; next, the methodology ments but it may slightly vary depending on the source. used in this paper is discussed; this is followed by the data According to Rossini et al. [15], the 16 technologies con- gathered with surveys and its analysis; finally, the conclu- nected with Industry 4.0 are: Robotics, RDIF, Real-time sions, limitations and implications are provided for both scanning, Sensors, Augmented reality, Cloud computing, the scientific and practitioners fields. Real-time data sharing, Real-time monitoring, Artificial in- telligence and machine learning algorithms, Digital auto- LITERATURE REVIEW mation, Additive manufacturing, Integrated engineering Lean Six Sigma systems, Big Data, Internet of Things and Production Pro- Lean Six Sigma has emerged as a combination of 2 suc- cesses autonomous management. Salkin et al. [7] added cessful methodologies Lean and Six Sigma. At the end of simulation as well. the XX century, they started to be combined [2] that led Even though Industry 4.0 technologies are becoming to improvement of the results of their application. Lean widespread, the integration of these technologies is not Six Sigma is a methodology to improve the processes by an easy task for organizations [12]. The shift in the ex- ‘improving quality, speed, customer satisfaction, and cepted processes is needed and the integration of new costs’ [3] based on data collection and analysis. It is aimed technologies with existing practices and methodologies is at the reduction of variation, wastes and defects with necessary. Thus, this challenge is also sharp from the Lean speed and Six Sigma robustness, using a well-struc- point of view of Lean Six Sigma integration and change. tured approach [4]. Lean Six Sigma projects are usually limited in time to one Lean Six Sigma in Industry 4.0 – three years and it works with complex projects, thus, it It was noted by Alblooshi M. and Shamsuzzaman M. [5] is a desirable approach for many organizations [5]. It is that Lean Six Sigma has helped organizations to be pre- also aligned with the strategy of organization for the pared for innovations. Industry 4.0 comprises the whole choice of the projects and has established an organiza- spectrum of different innovative technologies and tech- tional system, consisting of Master Black Belts, Black niques that could benefit from the existing Lean Six Sigma Belts, Green Belts [4] and Yellow Belts. structure in companies. Currently, this idea was slightly In summary, Lean Six Sigma is an integration of two meth- evaluated as the existing amount of companies already odologies that are aimed to reduce wastes, using the Lean experienced with both Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 approach, and lower the number of defects according to technologies is not immense. the Six Sigma process. Lean Six Sigma comprises the usage Considering the Six Sigma dependence on data, Big Data of Lean tools and the DMAIC system. Lean Six Sigma could possess great potential for Lean Six Sigma tools as it DMAIC cycle is used to solve existing problems, manage will make the process of data collection faster and projects and see ideas [6]. smoother. However, there are just a few studies on the interconnection of Lean Six Sigma Tools and Big Data so Industry 4.0 far [4]. The increasing complexity and advancement in technolo- It was noted by Chiarini A. and Kumar M. [1] that Lean Six gies have led to the emergence of a new concept of Indus- Sigma could serve as a good foundation for automation try 4.0, which was first mentioned at the Hannover Fair in integration as it could prepare the company by reducing 2011 by the German Government [7, 8]. As the goal of wastes and variation in the processes [1]. every industrial revolution is the creation of the processes Lean Six Sigma has been accepted in many organizations that better respond to the market demands [9], the Indus- as a methodology to solve problems [16] and it has try 4.0 (or the Fourth Industrial Revolution) concept is demonstrated positive results [2]. Although the changing connected with the creation of smart factories where the environment according to Industry 4.0 has an impact on activities are interconnected [7, 10]. Lean Six Sigma methodology especially from the point of With the increasing amount of customer demands and view of data gathering and analysis. Unfortunately, the constantly developing technological environment, com- analysis of the integration of Lean and Six Sigma has not panies have to meet the challenge of becoming more flex- been provided with sufficient research [1]. Thus, this pa- ible and coordinated in a smart way. Nowadays all kinds per aims to analyze the integration of Len Six Sigma and of products are becoming smart [11]. Industry 4.0 is aimed Industry 4.0. at creating the production where the technologies are in- terrelated, self-controlled and flexible [9]. The creation of METHODOLOGY an environment where independence and flexibility exist The theoretical development of this research was based at every level is the main goal of the Fourth Industrial Rev- on the systematic literature review and followed by a olution [12]. As the third revolution was connected with practitioners’ survey conducted in the Czech Republic. the widespread of IT, the 4th revolution is connected with The data from practitioners was gathered via a question- the Cyber-Physical Systems with the real world fully inte- naire with open questions for the purpose of conducting grated with them [13, 14]. the qualitative research. The aim of qualitative research is A. EFIMOVA, P. BRIŠ – The Implementation of the Conjunction of Lean Six Sigma … 225 not to measure the data statistically but to deepen the un- different technologies for different tools. The results were derstanding of the problem. analyzed from the point of view of the perspectives of The research questions for this survey were: conjunction in the future. The survey for this research was also run in 10 companies in the Czech Republic in October- • What are the advantages and disadvantages of the December of 2020. The managers of the participating conjunction of Industry 4.0 and Lean Six Sigma? companies answered the questions on the topic of inte- • What are the challenges connected with the conjunc- gration and blend of Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0. The tion of Industry 4.0 and Lean Six Sigma? companies participating in the survey were of different The data for the literature review was gathered from pub- sizes (4 large companies, 3 medium and 3 small). The lications that were accessed via Web of Science (Core Col- choice of the companies was random however it was tar- lection) and Scopus databases. The results were limited to geted on the industrial sector. The most experienced with the publications and conference papers found in two da- both Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 are large companies tabases. The conference papers were included in the re- as the majority of them use the tools and the technolo- search as the number of articles, available on Lean Six gies. In the given research all participating large compa- Sigma and Industry 4.0 is low. Moreover, only publications nies have both Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 imple- available in English that were published before January mented in their processes. This also explains the prevail- 2021 were considered. ing amount of companies in the work. In small and me- The search combination comprised (Lean OR Six Sigma) dium enterprises the amount of companies having intro- AND (Industry 4.0). As it could be seen in Figure 1, the duced both Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 is considera- search resulted in 38 articles and 58 conference papers in bly lower, especially this applies to the small companies Scopus and 31 articles and 33 conference papers in Web where the level of usage of Lean Six Sigma tools is the low- of Science. est. In the given research only middle-size companies with The review of the articles was performed to identify the experience in Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 were partic- publications that were investigating the relationships be- ipating, while only one of three small-size company has an tween Lean and Six Sigma and Industry 4.0, and 98 publi- experience with both Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0. cations were chosen. However, it is important to note, that all of the participat- ing companies are experienced with some of the Industry 4.0 technologies. The gathered data was analysed and presented with the purpose to depict the perspectives of the conjunction. Further, the model framework for the conjunction of Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 was pro- posed based on the prior analysis. RESULTS The relations between Lean and Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 The first publication connected with Lean in Industry 4.0 appeared in the year 2015. Since then the number of pub- lications is augmenting. As it can be seen in Figure 3 the interest towards the topic has grown significantly in the last three years. This, the interest towards the integration Fig. 1 The amount of papers in SCPUS and Web of Science of Lean Six Sigma (especially Lean) and Industry 4.0 has grown sufficiently from the year 2017. The process of the search for relevant papers could be seen in Figure 2. 69 articles and 91 conference papers found in SCOPUS and WoS databases Exclusion of duplicates 120 papers after duplicates exclusion Exclusion of non-relative to the topic 98 papers found relative to the topic Fig. 2 The search process and the results Fig. 3 Number of publications in a year The publications were analyzed and from the literature re- The assessment of the synergies of Lean and Industry 4.0 view several tendencies were identified: benefits of Lean was done in several papers. Although Lorenc M. [17] ar- and Six Sigma for Industry 4.0, benefits of Industry 4.0 for gues in the paper that Lean and Industry 4.0 have no sig- Lean and Six Sigma that were summarized; challenges that nificant correlation according to the papers connected are connected with the integration and conjunctions of 226 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2022, Volume 30, Issue 3 with Industry 4.0, many authors depict in their publica- gathered information is presented in Table 1, where the tions that Lean might influence the success of Industry respondents’ answers were summarized into 3 following 4.0, as well as Industry 4.0 might improve Lean. Several sections: papers have reflected the technologies that could be ap- • Advantages of the usage of Lean Six Sigma and Indus- plied to Lean tools and improve existing methodology [6, try 4.0 that were gathered from the answers. 9, 18, 19, 20] and others. Dogan et al. [6] analyzed LSS • Weaknesses – where the disadvantages of the con- from a data perspective and summarized technologies for junction were summarized. DMAIC steps. Rauch et al. [11] proposed guidelines of the • And Challenges where the challenges connected with process with Industry 4.0 technologies to achieve lean and both introduction and usage of the conjunction were smart production. They also divided Industry 4.0 technol- discussed. ogies that can be used in the processes according to the Each section was further divided into 4 categories, that Lean wastes types [11]. Similar work was accomplished by emerged from the answers’ analysis i.e. Human, Manage- Yeen Gavin Lai et al. [9], who also divided new technolo- rial, Technological and Financial as all the answers of re- gies according to the types of wastes. Pereira et al. [8] spondents were connected with one of these categories. conducted a literature review on how Industry 4.0 tools The results of the analysis are depicted in Table 1. can enhance lean methodology and divided new technol- ogies according to the existing lean tools that benefit from Table 1 them. The usage of Industry 4.0 for Lean Six Sigma Also, several authors argued that Lean Six Sigma might Advantages Weaknesses Challenges serve as a basis for Industry 4.0 introduction [14] and will Increased speed, “Correct” continue to be important [13], as it eliminates wastes and Managerial Coordination Quality people variations, thus, preparing the production to be optimized improvement with the new technologies. However, it was also men- Team tioned that Lean principles are rarely integrated into In- Lack (including of knowledge, dustry 4.0 implementation [12]. To solve the problem Human Mistake prof management) Workers Sony has proposed a Lean and Industry 4.0 integration qualification support model [14], that could be beneficial for organizations for and reluctance the implementation of new technologies. Rossini et al. Automatization [15] state that in Europe Lean must be implemented in or- and digitaliza- Technological tion, stability der to achieve better results in Industry 4.0. Moreover, Technical maturity, Technological and control, they argue that the impact of Lean is still higher than the complexity Implementa- Decreased one of Industry 4.0 technologies. The majority of papers tion process connected with the topic prove that the conjunction of complexity Lean and Industry 4.0 is beneficial for both. At the same Long-term time, the papers could be divided into two groups: the savings, Financial Financial Costs works where the influence of Lean on Industry 4.0 is dis- Key indicator’s challenge cussed, especially from the point of view that Lean serves improvement as a prerequisite, and papers where the influence of In- dustry 4.0 on Lean Six Sigma tools are depicted. As it could be seen from Table 1, the advantages are sim- At the same time, many authors state that there are some ilar to the benefits that have been mentioned in previous challenges connected with the conjunction. The most papers, discussed in the Literature review section, and are mentioned challenges are changes that need to be done connected with improvement of processes and quality as in a factory, insufficient knowledge and the role of hu- well as with process automatization. The weaknesses that mans [21, 22]. The conjunction of different technologies are mentioned in Table 1 are connected with the technical and Lean Six Sigma tools have proved to be positive, how- complexity, costs as well as with people. There are several ever, some challenges connected with the implementa- weaknesses connected with people: lack of knowledge of tion of new technologies and their combination with Lean emerging technologies by many people which also influ- Six Sigma tools are unavoidable [23]. ences the ‘correct’ people issue – whom to choose to In the following part, a practitioners’ opinion was gath- study the technologies better, and workers support, espe- ered with the help of a survey to answer the question cially from the point of view of substitution of workers by what are the major challenges and benefits of Lean Six the technologies. The challenges are connected with the Sigma and Industry 4.0 conjunction. weaknesses mentioned above and the process of imple- mentation itself. The conjunction of Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 in It was also mentioned in the answers that Lean Six Sigma Czech companies should provide the solid basement for Industry 4.0 intro- To develop the answer to the research questions the data duction as Industry 4.0 consists of technologies that might was also gathered in 10 companies in the Czech Republic. help us to reach the goal but Lean Six Sigma provides a Considering the fact that the research was qualitative, the way to reach the goal. gathered information was only partly structured. The A. EFIMOVA, P. BRIŠ – The Implementation of the Conjunction of Lean Six Sigma … 227 Thus, it could be seen from the survey, that the benefits tor as the lack of finances could influence the introduc- of the usage of Industry 4.0 and Lean Six Sigma in a com- tion. As the model resembles a wheel, to keep the form bination although being promising is connected with a set the factors should be balanced. The more equally factors of challenges, however from the long-term perspective are spread in groups – the stronger is the balance, the might become necessary for companies’ success, espe- higher is the level of readiness of factors, the higher is the cially, considering that the widespread of the technologies success. lead to the better awareness that might help to overcome The accurate estimation of the readiness of the factors challenges. mentioned above and their combination is required as it allows to avoid the challenges and magnify the benefits of Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 readiness Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 connected. Thus, a com- assessment model pany should consider the evaluation of the factors prior to The challenges, advantages and weaknesses of the con- the implementation or expansion of the usage of Lean Six junctions mentioned above allowed to introduce the con- Sigma and Industry 4.0. ceptual framework model for implementation readiness The readiness assessment model has been sent to 2 large assessment that allows to avoid challenges and weak- international industrial companies in the Czech Republic nesses and maximize benefits during the implementation and gathered positive feedback. The positive aspects of Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 combined. This model mentioned by the practitioners were that the model is considers the problems of the conjunction together with easy to be applied and to be understood, however, some the benefits provided. The model resembles the wheel think that the model could be further improved with where there are 4 main axes each of that is divided into 2 scales on the axes. Generally, as the model was assessed parts. The model is depicted in Figure 4. positively, it could also be further applied in other compa- nies, especially in the Czech Republic and assessed in other countries. DISCUSSION The introduction of contemporary technologies to indus- trial life requires companies to redesign their managerial systems. The increasing interest of authors and practition- ers proves the idea that the conjunction of Industry 4.0 and Lean and Six Sigma is disputable. However, the major- ity of works prove that the conjunction is beneficial for the production ([24, 25, 26] and others mentioned above), the challenges that arise from the implementation still need to be considered. Several works have already been published, proposing a framework and model for the successful implementation Fig. 4 The readiness wheel and operation of Lean and Six Sigma in the Industry 4.0 environment. An integration model was proposed by Sony As it can be seen, to introduce the conjunction several fac- [14], however it was based on vertical, horizontal and tors to avoid challenges and maximize benefits should be end-to-end integration without mentioning general re- considered. These factors could be divided into 4 groups: quirements. Several frameworks were also proposed technological, managerial, financial and human. These based on literature review and experience: Salvadorinho factors should be evaluated before the implementation of J. and Teixeira L. [27] propose a framework based on the the conjunction from law to high level from the point of mtual influence of Lean and Industry 4.0; Ejsmont K. and view of their readiness for the implementation. Thus, to Gładysz B. [28] analysis the Industry 4.0 potential to construct a working model, it is compulsory to thoroughly decrease wastes and proposed Lean framework for waste consider these factors and their readiness for the techno- typology. At the same time, many authors consider the logical change connected with optimization tools. From fact that the research is in its infancy [1] and needs to be the human point of view, it is also necessary to under- further developed. stand that the introduction of new technologies is inevita- In this paper, an attempt to summarize and analyze the bly connected with the shift in human competencies, and benefits, opportunities and challenges was performed. while technological and managerial factors could be influ- Moreover, the framework model of readiness assessment enced by a group of people (usually including top manage- based on the literature analysis and data gathered in the ment), the human factor is a complicated issue, thus the Czech Republic was performed. The results of the study thorough consideration of this factor is required. Also, might provide useful information for theoretical and prac- managerial factors are an important issue due to the rea- tical purposes. From a practical point of view, the results son that managerial commitment and management issues might contribute to the understanding of the conjunction should emanate from the readiness of the technological and the necessary information that should be considered and human groups. The last group here is the financial fac- by practitioners willing to implement either Lean Six 228 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2022, Volume 30, Issue 3 Sigma together with Industry 4.0 technologies or Industry In the future it would be valuable to consider the influ- 4.0 technologies for Lean Six Sigma. From a theoretical ence of Industry 4.0 on Lean Six Sigma project success; the perspective, the results provide useful insights into the impact of Lean Six Sigma on the implementation of Indus- topic and deepen the understanding of the emerging con- try 4.0 technologies and the contribution of separate In- junction. dustry 4.0 technologies on Lean Six Sigma. The work could serve as a motivation for better under- standing and integration of Lean Six Sigma and Industry ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 4.0 combination from both theoretical and practical The authors are thankful to the Internal Grant Agency of points of view. This work could be further developed by Tomas Bata University in Zlin No. IGA/FaME/2020/009 deepening the understanding of the conjunction of Lean ‘Optimalizace procesů a znalostní informační systémy jako Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 and pattern development for podpora podniků v Industry 4.0’ for financial support to this conjunction. Moreover, not many papers were based carry out research. on practical application with definite results, thus the practical point of view could also be further investigated. REFERENCES [1] A. Chiarini and M. Kumar, "Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 Considering the number of papers on Six Sigma and Indus- integration for Operational Excellence: evidence from Ital- try 4.0, this topic should be analyzed better to provide the ian manufacturing companies", Production Planning & necessary information on the influence of Industry 4.0 ei- Control: The Management of Operations, pp. 1-18, 2020. ther on Six Sigma or Lean Six Sigma. [2] M. George, Lean Six Sigma: combining Six Sigma quality with lean speed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002. CONCLUSIONS [3] A. Laureani and J. Antony, "Leadership characteristics for The increasing development of technologies is influencing Lean Six Sigma", Total Quality Management and Business the usage of existing methodologies such as Lean Six Excellence, vol. 28, no. 3-4, pp. 405-426, 2015. Sigma. In this paper, the conjunction of Lean Six Sigma and [4] J. Antony, S. Gupta, V. Sunder M. and E. Gijo, "Ten com- mandments of Lean Six Sigma: a practitioners’ perspec- Industry 4.0 was analyzed based on the survey in the tive", International Journal of Productivity and Perfor- Czech Republic companies. The results of the paper might mance Management, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 1033-1044, 2018. contribute to the understanding of the issue also in other [5] M. Alblooshi and M. Shamsuzzaman, "Investigating the re- countries, however, they should be verified better as lationship between Lean Six Sigma's intangible impacts some differences might occur. and organisational innovation climate factors", in Interna- The literature review revealed the fact that there is a pos- tional Journal of Productivity and Performance Manage- itive relationship for both Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0. ment, 2020, vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 1247-1270. Several authors have already analyzed several aspects of [6] O. Dogan and O. Gurcan, "Data Perspective of Lean Six what technologies should be used for Lean Six Sigma, Lean Sigma in Industry 4.0 Era: A Guide To Improve Quality", in Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Six Sigma is a necessary prerequisite for projects con- Engineering and Operations Management, 2018, pp. 943- nected with Industry 4.0. Despite the mutually beneficial cooperation between Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0, it [7] C. Salkin, M. Oner, A. Ustundag and E. Cevikcan, "A Con- is still connected with some challenges. ceptual Framework for Industry 4.0", in Industry 4.0: Man- In the practical part, the challenges and weaknesses and aging The Digital Transformation, 2018, pp. 3-23. strengths of the conjunction were gathered and it was [8] A. Pereira, J. Dinis-Carvalho, A. Alves and P. Arezes, "How found out that while advantages are connected with tech- Industry 4.0 can enhance Lean practices", FME Transac- nological automatization and long-term process improve- tions, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 810-822, 2019. ment (thus, cost savings), the weaknesses and challenges [9] N. Yeen Gavin Lai, K. Hoong Wong, D. Halim, J. Lu and H. Siang Kang, "Industry 4.0 Enhanced Lean Manufacturing", are also connected with technologies, in particular the th in 2019 8 International Conference on Industrial Technol- lack of knowledge of technologies, and costs. Further, the ogy and Management (ICITM), 2019, pp. 206-211. framework model for the readiness assessment for the [10] Chiarini, "Industry 4.0, quality management and TQM conjunction of Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 was devel- world. A systematic literature review and a proposed oped based on the data from the analysis, which consists agenda for further research", The TQM Journal, vol. 32, no. of 4 major categories influencing the conjunction: tech- 4, pp. 603-616, 2020. nical, managerial, financial and human. [11] E. Rauch, P. Dallasega and D. Matt, "The way from Lean The authors are aware of the subjectivity and limitations Product Development (LPD) to Smart Product Develop- th of the research and thus, further discussion on this topic ment (SPD)", in 26 CIRP Design Conference 2016, 2016, pp. 26-31. is inspired. [12] C. Leyh, S. Martin and T. Schaeffer, "Industry 4.0 and Lean In conclusion, it is important to say that, as the conjunc- Production – A Matching Relationship? An analysis of se- tion was proved to be beneficial from both theoretical and lected Industry 4.0 models", in Proceedings Of The 2017 practical views, the implementation of the conjunction, Federated Conference On Computer Science And Infor- despite its weaknesses and challenges, should provide a mation Systems (FEDCSIS), 2017, pp. 989-993. competitive advantage in the closest future and the [13] A. Uriarte, A. Ng and M. Moris, "Supporting the lean jour- framework model proposed in the study might contribute ney with simulation and optimization in the context of In- to better integration of Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0. dustry 4.0", Procedia Manufacturing, vol. 2018, no. 25, pp. 586-593, 2018. A. EFIMOVA, P. BRIŠ – The Implementation of the Conjunction of Lean Six Sigma … 229 [14] M. Sony, "Industry 4.0 and lean management: a proposed [22] S. James and A. Cervantes, "Study of Industry 4.0 and its integration model and research propositions", Production Impact on Lean Transformation in Aerospace Manufactur- th & Manufacturing Research, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 416-432, ing", in Volume 9: 15 IEEE/ASME International Confer- 2017. ence on Mechatronic and Embedded Systems and Applica- [15] M. Rossini, F. Costa, G. Tortorella and A. Portioli-Stau- tions, 2019. dacher, "The interrelation between Industry 4.0 and lean [23] A. Beifert, L. Gerlitz and G. Prause, "Industry 4.0 – For Sus- production: an empirical study on European manufactur- tainable Development of Lean Manufacturing Companies ers", The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing in the Shipbuilding Sector", Reliability and Statistics in Technology, vol. 102, no. 9-12, pp. 3963-3976, 2019. Transportation and Communication, pp. 563-573, 2018. [16] J. Antony, D. Setijono and J. Dahlgaard, "Lean Six Sigma [24] L. Valamede and A. Santos Akkari, "The Perspectives of In- and Innovation – an exploratory study among UK organi- tegration Between Lean Manufacturing and Industry 4.0", th sations", Total Quality Management and Business Excel- in Proceedings of the 5 Brazilian Technology Symposium, lence, vol. 27, no. 1-2, pp. 124-140, 2014. 2021, pp. 459-467. [17] M. Lorenc and F. Martinez, eds., P. Jirsak, "Industry 4.0. [25] A. Sanders, K. K. Subramanian, T. Redlich and J. Wulfsberg, th The end Lean Management?", in The 10 International "Industry 4.0 and Lean Management – Synergy or Contra- Days Of Statistics And Economics: Conference Proceedings, diction?", Advances in Production Management Systems. 2016, pp. 1189-1197. The Path to Intelligent, Collaborative and Sustainable [18] D. Powell, D. Romero, P. Gaiardelli and C. Cimini, "Towards Manufacturing, vol. 2017, no., pp. 341-349, 2017. Digital Lean Cyber-Physical Production Systems: Industry [26] H. Saabye, T. Kristensen and B. Wæhrens, "Real-Time Data 4.0 Technologies as Enablers of Leaner Production", in Utilization Barriers to Improving Production Performance: Conference: APMS – Production Management for Data- An In-depth Case Study Linking Lean Management and In- driven, Intelligent, Collaborative, and Sustainable Manu- dustry 4.0 from a Learning Organization Perspective", Sus- facturing, 2018, Volume: I. Part II., pp. 353-362. tainability, vol. 12, no. 21, 2020. [19] B. Paiva Santos, F. Charrua-Santos and T. Lima, "Interac- [27] J. Salvadorinho and L. Teixeira, "The Bilateral Effects Be- tion between Lean philosophy and Industry 4.0: explora- tween Industry 4.0 and Lean: Proposal of a Framework th th tory study", in Proceedings IRF2018: 6 International Con- Based on Literature Review", in Proceedings of the 5 NA ference Integrity-Reliability-Failure, 2018, pp. 1047-1048. International Conference on Industrial Engineering and [20] B. Mrugalska and M. Wyrwicka, "Towards Lean Production Operations Management, 2020, pp. 643-654. in Industry 4.0", Procedia Engineering, vol. 182, pp. 466- [28] K. Ejsmont and B. Gładysz, "Lean Industry 4.0 – Wastes th 473, 2017. Versus Technology Framework", in The 10 International [21] G. Luz Tortorella, C. Fries, A. Mac Cawley and R. Feroldi Mi- Conference on Engineering, Project, and Production Man- orando, "On the relationship between Lean Supply Chain agement, 2020, pp. 537-546. Management and performance improvement by adopting Industry 4.0 technologies", in IEOM 2018, 2018, pp. 2475- Anastasia Efimova ORCID ID: 0000-0002-7930-7026 Tomas Bata University in Zlin Faculty of Management and Economics Department of Industrial Engineering and Information Systems Zlin, 76001, Czech Republic e-mail: efimova@utb.cz Petr Briš ORCID ID: 0000-0001-7027-1648 Tomas Bata University in Zlin Faculty of Management and Economics Department of Industrial Engineering and Information Systems Zlin, 76001, Czech Republic e-mail: bris@utb.cz http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Management Systems in Production Engineering de Gruyter

The Implementation of the Conjunction of Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0: A Case Study in the Czech Republic

Loading next page...
 
/lp/de-gruyter/the-implementation-of-the-conjunction-of-lean-six-sigma-and-industry-4-oN8NwZl5Ox
Publisher
de Gruyter
Copyright
© 2022 Anastasia Efimova et al., published by Sciendo
eISSN
2450-5781
DOI
10.2478/mspe-2022-0028
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

As advanced technologies are becoming a natural part of the industrial environment, the influence of these tech- nologies on organizational practices is becoming more expanding. In this paper, an attempt was made to under- stand the conjunction of Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0. The study was conducted in the Czech Republic and qualitative data was gathered from 10 companies. The information on the benefits, weaknesses and challenges of the conjunction was summarized. For the research purposes literature review and qualitative analysis were performed. It was found out that, although the conjunction is connected with challenges, the perspectives are beneficial for industrial companies. The data generated also allowed to introduce the readiness assessment model for the implementation of the conjunction based on 4 categories: technological, managerial, financial and human. This information could be used for theoretical and practical purposes for the creation of a successful Lean Six Sigma pattern in Industry 4.0. Key words: Lean, Six Sigma, Industry 4.0, optimization, technologies INTRODUCTION be shifted in accordance with the demands of the modern The increasing complexity of the contemporary world and world. the development of technologies have led to the emer- It also has been stated that Lean Six Sigma might serve as gence of a new concept called Industry 4.0 or the Fourth a good foundation for Industry 4.0 [1] as it helps to ana- Industrial Revolution. As the fourth industrial revolution is lyze the process and identify the most perspective fields becoming increasingly widespread, the interest towards it for Industry 4.0 implementation. Considering the fact, is also growing. Many specialists and scientists are inter- that many companies have to struggle in the competition, ested in creating the framework for the usage of new this integration is promising as it may help companies to technologies of Industry 4.0. Companies are enthusiastic achieve better results. about introducing new technologies to the production The aim of this research is to analyze the conjunction of processes. So, the need has appeared of evaluating differ- Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 to contribute to a better ent existing techniques, tools and methods from the point understanding of the issue for practitioners and research- of view of their suitability for Industry 4.0. ers. As the research on Lean Six Sigma in Industry 4.0 is in As one of the leading techniques of the last decades has its infancy these results might provide useful insights for become Lean Six Sigma, companies and engineers work- future research. The research is conducted in one of the ing with this methodology are trying to find a way to adapt European countries, namely the Czech Republic, thus the the existing tools to the new challenging environments. results might bring useful information to other countries One of the ways to achieve this goal may become Industry as well. However, the results should be further verified in 4.0 technologies. other countries as well. Despite the similar goals of Lean Six Sigma and Industry This research consists of theoretical analysis of the exist- 4.0 to improve efficiency, their integration has not yet ing literature i.e. the systematic literature review and data been thoroughly analyzed [1]. With the rapid change in gathering from practitioners of Lean Six Sigma and Indus- the environment and advanced improvement of technol- try 4.0 in the form of a Survey. The general amount of par- ogies, the integration of Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 is ticipating companies is 10 (4 large size, 3 middle size and inevitable as Lean Six Sigma tools and principles have to 3 small size). © 2022 Author(s). This is an open access article licensed under the Creative Commons BY 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) 224 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2022, Volume 30, Issue 3 The paper is structured in the following way: first, the the- Industry 4.0 is a term that includes several technologies oretical background of Lean Six Sigma, Industry 4.0 and that are connected with the latest technological advance- their combination is presented; next, the methodology ments but it may slightly vary depending on the source. used in this paper is discussed; this is followed by the data According to Rossini et al. [15], the 16 technologies con- gathered with surveys and its analysis; finally, the conclu- nected with Industry 4.0 are: Robotics, RDIF, Real-time sions, limitations and implications are provided for both scanning, Sensors, Augmented reality, Cloud computing, the scientific and practitioners fields. Real-time data sharing, Real-time monitoring, Artificial in- telligence and machine learning algorithms, Digital auto- LITERATURE REVIEW mation, Additive manufacturing, Integrated engineering Lean Six Sigma systems, Big Data, Internet of Things and Production Pro- Lean Six Sigma has emerged as a combination of 2 suc- cesses autonomous management. Salkin et al. [7] added cessful methodologies Lean and Six Sigma. At the end of simulation as well. the XX century, they started to be combined [2] that led Even though Industry 4.0 technologies are becoming to improvement of the results of their application. Lean widespread, the integration of these technologies is not Six Sigma is a methodology to improve the processes by an easy task for organizations [12]. The shift in the ex- ‘improving quality, speed, customer satisfaction, and cepted processes is needed and the integration of new costs’ [3] based on data collection and analysis. It is aimed technologies with existing practices and methodologies is at the reduction of variation, wastes and defects with necessary. Thus, this challenge is also sharp from the Lean speed and Six Sigma robustness, using a well-struc- point of view of Lean Six Sigma integration and change. tured approach [4]. Lean Six Sigma projects are usually limited in time to one Lean Six Sigma in Industry 4.0 – three years and it works with complex projects, thus, it It was noted by Alblooshi M. and Shamsuzzaman M. [5] is a desirable approach for many organizations [5]. It is that Lean Six Sigma has helped organizations to be pre- also aligned with the strategy of organization for the pared for innovations. Industry 4.0 comprises the whole choice of the projects and has established an organiza- spectrum of different innovative technologies and tech- tional system, consisting of Master Black Belts, Black niques that could benefit from the existing Lean Six Sigma Belts, Green Belts [4] and Yellow Belts. structure in companies. Currently, this idea was slightly In summary, Lean Six Sigma is an integration of two meth- evaluated as the existing amount of companies already odologies that are aimed to reduce wastes, using the Lean experienced with both Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 approach, and lower the number of defects according to technologies is not immense. the Six Sigma process. Lean Six Sigma comprises the usage Considering the Six Sigma dependence on data, Big Data of Lean tools and the DMAIC system. Lean Six Sigma could possess great potential for Lean Six Sigma tools as it DMAIC cycle is used to solve existing problems, manage will make the process of data collection faster and projects and see ideas [6]. smoother. However, there are just a few studies on the interconnection of Lean Six Sigma Tools and Big Data so Industry 4.0 far [4]. The increasing complexity and advancement in technolo- It was noted by Chiarini A. and Kumar M. [1] that Lean Six gies have led to the emergence of a new concept of Indus- Sigma could serve as a good foundation for automation try 4.0, which was first mentioned at the Hannover Fair in integration as it could prepare the company by reducing 2011 by the German Government [7, 8]. As the goal of wastes and variation in the processes [1]. every industrial revolution is the creation of the processes Lean Six Sigma has been accepted in many organizations that better respond to the market demands [9], the Indus- as a methodology to solve problems [16] and it has try 4.0 (or the Fourth Industrial Revolution) concept is demonstrated positive results [2]. Although the changing connected with the creation of smart factories where the environment according to Industry 4.0 has an impact on activities are interconnected [7, 10]. Lean Six Sigma methodology especially from the point of With the increasing amount of customer demands and view of data gathering and analysis. Unfortunately, the constantly developing technological environment, com- analysis of the integration of Lean and Six Sigma has not panies have to meet the challenge of becoming more flex- been provided with sufficient research [1]. Thus, this pa- ible and coordinated in a smart way. Nowadays all kinds per aims to analyze the integration of Len Six Sigma and of products are becoming smart [11]. Industry 4.0 is aimed Industry 4.0. at creating the production where the technologies are in- terrelated, self-controlled and flexible [9]. The creation of METHODOLOGY an environment where independence and flexibility exist The theoretical development of this research was based at every level is the main goal of the Fourth Industrial Rev- on the systematic literature review and followed by a olution [12]. As the third revolution was connected with practitioners’ survey conducted in the Czech Republic. the widespread of IT, the 4th revolution is connected with The data from practitioners was gathered via a question- the Cyber-Physical Systems with the real world fully inte- naire with open questions for the purpose of conducting grated with them [13, 14]. the qualitative research. The aim of qualitative research is A. EFIMOVA, P. BRIŠ – The Implementation of the Conjunction of Lean Six Sigma … 225 not to measure the data statistically but to deepen the un- different technologies for different tools. The results were derstanding of the problem. analyzed from the point of view of the perspectives of The research questions for this survey were: conjunction in the future. The survey for this research was also run in 10 companies in the Czech Republic in October- • What are the advantages and disadvantages of the December of 2020. The managers of the participating conjunction of Industry 4.0 and Lean Six Sigma? companies answered the questions on the topic of inte- • What are the challenges connected with the conjunc- gration and blend of Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0. The tion of Industry 4.0 and Lean Six Sigma? companies participating in the survey were of different The data for the literature review was gathered from pub- sizes (4 large companies, 3 medium and 3 small). The lications that were accessed via Web of Science (Core Col- choice of the companies was random however it was tar- lection) and Scopus databases. The results were limited to geted on the industrial sector. The most experienced with the publications and conference papers found in two da- both Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 are large companies tabases. The conference papers were included in the re- as the majority of them use the tools and the technolo- search as the number of articles, available on Lean Six gies. In the given research all participating large compa- Sigma and Industry 4.0 is low. Moreover, only publications nies have both Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 imple- available in English that were published before January mented in their processes. This also explains the prevail- 2021 were considered. ing amount of companies in the work. In small and me- The search combination comprised (Lean OR Six Sigma) dium enterprises the amount of companies having intro- AND (Industry 4.0). As it could be seen in Figure 1, the duced both Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 is considera- search resulted in 38 articles and 58 conference papers in bly lower, especially this applies to the small companies Scopus and 31 articles and 33 conference papers in Web where the level of usage of Lean Six Sigma tools is the low- of Science. est. In the given research only middle-size companies with The review of the articles was performed to identify the experience in Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 were partic- publications that were investigating the relationships be- ipating, while only one of three small-size company has an tween Lean and Six Sigma and Industry 4.0, and 98 publi- experience with both Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0. cations were chosen. However, it is important to note, that all of the participat- ing companies are experienced with some of the Industry 4.0 technologies. The gathered data was analysed and presented with the purpose to depict the perspectives of the conjunction. Further, the model framework for the conjunction of Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 was pro- posed based on the prior analysis. RESULTS The relations between Lean and Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 The first publication connected with Lean in Industry 4.0 appeared in the year 2015. Since then the number of pub- lications is augmenting. As it can be seen in Figure 3 the interest towards the topic has grown significantly in the last three years. This, the interest towards the integration Fig. 1 The amount of papers in SCPUS and Web of Science of Lean Six Sigma (especially Lean) and Industry 4.0 has grown sufficiently from the year 2017. The process of the search for relevant papers could be seen in Figure 2. 69 articles and 91 conference papers found in SCOPUS and WoS databases Exclusion of duplicates 120 papers after duplicates exclusion Exclusion of non-relative to the topic 98 papers found relative to the topic Fig. 2 The search process and the results Fig. 3 Number of publications in a year The publications were analyzed and from the literature re- The assessment of the synergies of Lean and Industry 4.0 view several tendencies were identified: benefits of Lean was done in several papers. Although Lorenc M. [17] ar- and Six Sigma for Industry 4.0, benefits of Industry 4.0 for gues in the paper that Lean and Industry 4.0 have no sig- Lean and Six Sigma that were summarized; challenges that nificant correlation according to the papers connected are connected with the integration and conjunctions of 226 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2022, Volume 30, Issue 3 with Industry 4.0, many authors depict in their publica- gathered information is presented in Table 1, where the tions that Lean might influence the success of Industry respondents’ answers were summarized into 3 following 4.0, as well as Industry 4.0 might improve Lean. Several sections: papers have reflected the technologies that could be ap- • Advantages of the usage of Lean Six Sigma and Indus- plied to Lean tools and improve existing methodology [6, try 4.0 that were gathered from the answers. 9, 18, 19, 20] and others. Dogan et al. [6] analyzed LSS • Weaknesses – where the disadvantages of the con- from a data perspective and summarized technologies for junction were summarized. DMAIC steps. Rauch et al. [11] proposed guidelines of the • And Challenges where the challenges connected with process with Industry 4.0 technologies to achieve lean and both introduction and usage of the conjunction were smart production. They also divided Industry 4.0 technol- discussed. ogies that can be used in the processes according to the Each section was further divided into 4 categories, that Lean wastes types [11]. Similar work was accomplished by emerged from the answers’ analysis i.e. Human, Manage- Yeen Gavin Lai et al. [9], who also divided new technolo- rial, Technological and Financial as all the answers of re- gies according to the types of wastes. Pereira et al. [8] spondents were connected with one of these categories. conducted a literature review on how Industry 4.0 tools The results of the analysis are depicted in Table 1. can enhance lean methodology and divided new technol- ogies according to the existing lean tools that benefit from Table 1 them. The usage of Industry 4.0 for Lean Six Sigma Also, several authors argued that Lean Six Sigma might Advantages Weaknesses Challenges serve as a basis for Industry 4.0 introduction [14] and will Increased speed, “Correct” continue to be important [13], as it eliminates wastes and Managerial Coordination Quality people variations, thus, preparing the production to be optimized improvement with the new technologies. However, it was also men- Team tioned that Lean principles are rarely integrated into In- Lack (including of knowledge, dustry 4.0 implementation [12]. To solve the problem Human Mistake prof management) Workers Sony has proposed a Lean and Industry 4.0 integration qualification support model [14], that could be beneficial for organizations for and reluctance the implementation of new technologies. Rossini et al. Automatization [15] state that in Europe Lean must be implemented in or- and digitaliza- Technological tion, stability der to achieve better results in Industry 4.0. Moreover, Technical maturity, Technological and control, they argue that the impact of Lean is still higher than the complexity Implementa- Decreased one of Industry 4.0 technologies. The majority of papers tion process connected with the topic prove that the conjunction of complexity Lean and Industry 4.0 is beneficial for both. At the same Long-term time, the papers could be divided into two groups: the savings, Financial Financial Costs works where the influence of Lean on Industry 4.0 is dis- Key indicator’s challenge cussed, especially from the point of view that Lean serves improvement as a prerequisite, and papers where the influence of In- dustry 4.0 on Lean Six Sigma tools are depicted. As it could be seen from Table 1, the advantages are sim- At the same time, many authors state that there are some ilar to the benefits that have been mentioned in previous challenges connected with the conjunction. The most papers, discussed in the Literature review section, and are mentioned challenges are changes that need to be done connected with improvement of processes and quality as in a factory, insufficient knowledge and the role of hu- well as with process automatization. The weaknesses that mans [21, 22]. The conjunction of different technologies are mentioned in Table 1 are connected with the technical and Lean Six Sigma tools have proved to be positive, how- complexity, costs as well as with people. There are several ever, some challenges connected with the implementa- weaknesses connected with people: lack of knowledge of tion of new technologies and their combination with Lean emerging technologies by many people which also influ- Six Sigma tools are unavoidable [23]. ences the ‘correct’ people issue – whom to choose to In the following part, a practitioners’ opinion was gath- study the technologies better, and workers support, espe- ered with the help of a survey to answer the question cially from the point of view of substitution of workers by what are the major challenges and benefits of Lean Six the technologies. The challenges are connected with the Sigma and Industry 4.0 conjunction. weaknesses mentioned above and the process of imple- mentation itself. The conjunction of Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 in It was also mentioned in the answers that Lean Six Sigma Czech companies should provide the solid basement for Industry 4.0 intro- To develop the answer to the research questions the data duction as Industry 4.0 consists of technologies that might was also gathered in 10 companies in the Czech Republic. help us to reach the goal but Lean Six Sigma provides a Considering the fact that the research was qualitative, the way to reach the goal. gathered information was only partly structured. The A. EFIMOVA, P. BRIŠ – The Implementation of the Conjunction of Lean Six Sigma … 227 Thus, it could be seen from the survey, that the benefits tor as the lack of finances could influence the introduc- of the usage of Industry 4.0 and Lean Six Sigma in a com- tion. As the model resembles a wheel, to keep the form bination although being promising is connected with a set the factors should be balanced. The more equally factors of challenges, however from the long-term perspective are spread in groups – the stronger is the balance, the might become necessary for companies’ success, espe- higher is the level of readiness of factors, the higher is the cially, considering that the widespread of the technologies success. lead to the better awareness that might help to overcome The accurate estimation of the readiness of the factors challenges. mentioned above and their combination is required as it allows to avoid the challenges and magnify the benefits of Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 readiness Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 connected. Thus, a com- assessment model pany should consider the evaluation of the factors prior to The challenges, advantages and weaknesses of the con- the implementation or expansion of the usage of Lean Six junctions mentioned above allowed to introduce the con- Sigma and Industry 4.0. ceptual framework model for implementation readiness The readiness assessment model has been sent to 2 large assessment that allows to avoid challenges and weak- international industrial companies in the Czech Republic nesses and maximize benefits during the implementation and gathered positive feedback. The positive aspects of Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 combined. This model mentioned by the practitioners were that the model is considers the problems of the conjunction together with easy to be applied and to be understood, however, some the benefits provided. The model resembles the wheel think that the model could be further improved with where there are 4 main axes each of that is divided into 2 scales on the axes. Generally, as the model was assessed parts. The model is depicted in Figure 4. positively, it could also be further applied in other compa- nies, especially in the Czech Republic and assessed in other countries. DISCUSSION The introduction of contemporary technologies to indus- trial life requires companies to redesign their managerial systems. The increasing interest of authors and practition- ers proves the idea that the conjunction of Industry 4.0 and Lean and Six Sigma is disputable. However, the major- ity of works prove that the conjunction is beneficial for the production ([24, 25, 26] and others mentioned above), the challenges that arise from the implementation still need to be considered. Several works have already been published, proposing a framework and model for the successful implementation Fig. 4 The readiness wheel and operation of Lean and Six Sigma in the Industry 4.0 environment. An integration model was proposed by Sony As it can be seen, to introduce the conjunction several fac- [14], however it was based on vertical, horizontal and tors to avoid challenges and maximize benefits should be end-to-end integration without mentioning general re- considered. These factors could be divided into 4 groups: quirements. Several frameworks were also proposed technological, managerial, financial and human. These based on literature review and experience: Salvadorinho factors should be evaluated before the implementation of J. and Teixeira L. [27] propose a framework based on the the conjunction from law to high level from the point of mtual influence of Lean and Industry 4.0; Ejsmont K. and view of their readiness for the implementation. Thus, to Gładysz B. [28] analysis the Industry 4.0 potential to construct a working model, it is compulsory to thoroughly decrease wastes and proposed Lean framework for waste consider these factors and their readiness for the techno- typology. At the same time, many authors consider the logical change connected with optimization tools. From fact that the research is in its infancy [1] and needs to be the human point of view, it is also necessary to under- further developed. stand that the introduction of new technologies is inevita- In this paper, an attempt to summarize and analyze the bly connected with the shift in human competencies, and benefits, opportunities and challenges was performed. while technological and managerial factors could be influ- Moreover, the framework model of readiness assessment enced by a group of people (usually including top manage- based on the literature analysis and data gathered in the ment), the human factor is a complicated issue, thus the Czech Republic was performed. The results of the study thorough consideration of this factor is required. Also, might provide useful information for theoretical and prac- managerial factors are an important issue due to the rea- tical purposes. From a practical point of view, the results son that managerial commitment and management issues might contribute to the understanding of the conjunction should emanate from the readiness of the technological and the necessary information that should be considered and human groups. The last group here is the financial fac- by practitioners willing to implement either Lean Six 228 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2022, Volume 30, Issue 3 Sigma together with Industry 4.0 technologies or Industry In the future it would be valuable to consider the influ- 4.0 technologies for Lean Six Sigma. From a theoretical ence of Industry 4.0 on Lean Six Sigma project success; the perspective, the results provide useful insights into the impact of Lean Six Sigma on the implementation of Indus- topic and deepen the understanding of the emerging con- try 4.0 technologies and the contribution of separate In- junction. dustry 4.0 technologies on Lean Six Sigma. The work could serve as a motivation for better under- standing and integration of Lean Six Sigma and Industry ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 4.0 combination from both theoretical and practical The authors are thankful to the Internal Grant Agency of points of view. This work could be further developed by Tomas Bata University in Zlin No. IGA/FaME/2020/009 deepening the understanding of the conjunction of Lean ‘Optimalizace procesů a znalostní informační systémy jako Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 and pattern development for podpora podniků v Industry 4.0’ for financial support to this conjunction. Moreover, not many papers were based carry out research. on practical application with definite results, thus the practical point of view could also be further investigated. REFERENCES [1] A. Chiarini and M. Kumar, "Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 Considering the number of papers on Six Sigma and Indus- integration for Operational Excellence: evidence from Ital- try 4.0, this topic should be analyzed better to provide the ian manufacturing companies", Production Planning & necessary information on the influence of Industry 4.0 ei- Control: The Management of Operations, pp. 1-18, 2020. ther on Six Sigma or Lean Six Sigma. [2] M. George, Lean Six Sigma: combining Six Sigma quality with lean speed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002. CONCLUSIONS [3] A. Laureani and J. Antony, "Leadership characteristics for The increasing development of technologies is influencing Lean Six Sigma", Total Quality Management and Business the usage of existing methodologies such as Lean Six Excellence, vol. 28, no. 3-4, pp. 405-426, 2015. Sigma. In this paper, the conjunction of Lean Six Sigma and [4] J. Antony, S. Gupta, V. Sunder M. and E. Gijo, "Ten com- mandments of Lean Six Sigma: a practitioners’ perspec- Industry 4.0 was analyzed based on the survey in the tive", International Journal of Productivity and Perfor- Czech Republic companies. The results of the paper might mance Management, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 1033-1044, 2018. contribute to the understanding of the issue also in other [5] M. Alblooshi and M. Shamsuzzaman, "Investigating the re- countries, however, they should be verified better as lationship between Lean Six Sigma's intangible impacts some differences might occur. and organisational innovation climate factors", in Interna- The literature review revealed the fact that there is a pos- tional Journal of Productivity and Performance Manage- itive relationship for both Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0. ment, 2020, vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 1247-1270. Several authors have already analyzed several aspects of [6] O. Dogan and O. Gurcan, "Data Perspective of Lean Six what technologies should be used for Lean Six Sigma, Lean Sigma in Industry 4.0 Era: A Guide To Improve Quality", in Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Six Sigma is a necessary prerequisite for projects con- Engineering and Operations Management, 2018, pp. 943- nected with Industry 4.0. Despite the mutually beneficial cooperation between Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0, it [7] C. Salkin, M. Oner, A. Ustundag and E. Cevikcan, "A Con- is still connected with some challenges. ceptual Framework for Industry 4.0", in Industry 4.0: Man- In the practical part, the challenges and weaknesses and aging The Digital Transformation, 2018, pp. 3-23. strengths of the conjunction were gathered and it was [8] A. Pereira, J. Dinis-Carvalho, A. Alves and P. Arezes, "How found out that while advantages are connected with tech- Industry 4.0 can enhance Lean practices", FME Transac- nological automatization and long-term process improve- tions, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 810-822, 2019. ment (thus, cost savings), the weaknesses and challenges [9] N. Yeen Gavin Lai, K. Hoong Wong, D. Halim, J. Lu and H. Siang Kang, "Industry 4.0 Enhanced Lean Manufacturing", are also connected with technologies, in particular the th in 2019 8 International Conference on Industrial Technol- lack of knowledge of technologies, and costs. Further, the ogy and Management (ICITM), 2019, pp. 206-211. framework model for the readiness assessment for the [10] Chiarini, "Industry 4.0, quality management and TQM conjunction of Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0 was devel- world. A systematic literature review and a proposed oped based on the data from the analysis, which consists agenda for further research", The TQM Journal, vol. 32, no. of 4 major categories influencing the conjunction: tech- 4, pp. 603-616, 2020. nical, managerial, financial and human. [11] E. Rauch, P. Dallasega and D. Matt, "The way from Lean The authors are aware of the subjectivity and limitations Product Development (LPD) to Smart Product Develop- th of the research and thus, further discussion on this topic ment (SPD)", in 26 CIRP Design Conference 2016, 2016, pp. 26-31. is inspired. [12] C. Leyh, S. Martin and T. Schaeffer, "Industry 4.0 and Lean In conclusion, it is important to say that, as the conjunc- Production – A Matching Relationship? An analysis of se- tion was proved to be beneficial from both theoretical and lected Industry 4.0 models", in Proceedings Of The 2017 practical views, the implementation of the conjunction, Federated Conference On Computer Science And Infor- despite its weaknesses and challenges, should provide a mation Systems (FEDCSIS), 2017, pp. 989-993. competitive advantage in the closest future and the [13] A. Uriarte, A. Ng and M. Moris, "Supporting the lean jour- framework model proposed in the study might contribute ney with simulation and optimization in the context of In- to better integration of Lean Six Sigma and Industry 4.0. dustry 4.0", Procedia Manufacturing, vol. 2018, no. 25, pp. 586-593, 2018. A. EFIMOVA, P. BRIŠ – The Implementation of the Conjunction of Lean Six Sigma … 229 [14] M. Sony, "Industry 4.0 and lean management: a proposed [22] S. James and A. Cervantes, "Study of Industry 4.0 and its integration model and research propositions", Production Impact on Lean Transformation in Aerospace Manufactur- th & Manufacturing Research, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 416-432, ing", in Volume 9: 15 IEEE/ASME International Confer- 2017. ence on Mechatronic and Embedded Systems and Applica- [15] M. Rossini, F. Costa, G. Tortorella and A. Portioli-Stau- tions, 2019. dacher, "The interrelation between Industry 4.0 and lean [23] A. Beifert, L. Gerlitz and G. Prause, "Industry 4.0 – For Sus- production: an empirical study on European manufactur- tainable Development of Lean Manufacturing Companies ers", The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing in the Shipbuilding Sector", Reliability and Statistics in Technology, vol. 102, no. 9-12, pp. 3963-3976, 2019. Transportation and Communication, pp. 563-573, 2018. [16] J. Antony, D. Setijono and J. Dahlgaard, "Lean Six Sigma [24] L. Valamede and A. Santos Akkari, "The Perspectives of In- and Innovation – an exploratory study among UK organi- tegration Between Lean Manufacturing and Industry 4.0", th sations", Total Quality Management and Business Excel- in Proceedings of the 5 Brazilian Technology Symposium, lence, vol. 27, no. 1-2, pp. 124-140, 2014. 2021, pp. 459-467. [17] M. Lorenc and F. Martinez, eds., P. Jirsak, "Industry 4.0. [25] A. Sanders, K. K. Subramanian, T. Redlich and J. Wulfsberg, th The end Lean Management?", in The 10 International "Industry 4.0 and Lean Management – Synergy or Contra- Days Of Statistics And Economics: Conference Proceedings, diction?", Advances in Production Management Systems. 2016, pp. 1189-1197. The Path to Intelligent, Collaborative and Sustainable [18] D. Powell, D. Romero, P. Gaiardelli and C. Cimini, "Towards Manufacturing, vol. 2017, no., pp. 341-349, 2017. Digital Lean Cyber-Physical Production Systems: Industry [26] H. Saabye, T. Kristensen and B. Wæhrens, "Real-Time Data 4.0 Technologies as Enablers of Leaner Production", in Utilization Barriers to Improving Production Performance: Conference: APMS – Production Management for Data- An In-depth Case Study Linking Lean Management and In- driven, Intelligent, Collaborative, and Sustainable Manu- dustry 4.0 from a Learning Organization Perspective", Sus- facturing, 2018, Volume: I. Part II., pp. 353-362. tainability, vol. 12, no. 21, 2020. [19] B. Paiva Santos, F. Charrua-Santos and T. Lima, "Interac- [27] J. Salvadorinho and L. Teixeira, "The Bilateral Effects Be- tion between Lean philosophy and Industry 4.0: explora- tween Industry 4.0 and Lean: Proposal of a Framework th th tory study", in Proceedings IRF2018: 6 International Con- Based on Literature Review", in Proceedings of the 5 NA ference Integrity-Reliability-Failure, 2018, pp. 1047-1048. International Conference on Industrial Engineering and [20] B. Mrugalska and M. Wyrwicka, "Towards Lean Production Operations Management, 2020, pp. 643-654. in Industry 4.0", Procedia Engineering, vol. 182, pp. 466- [28] K. Ejsmont and B. Gładysz, "Lean Industry 4.0 – Wastes th 473, 2017. Versus Technology Framework", in The 10 International [21] G. Luz Tortorella, C. Fries, A. Mac Cawley and R. Feroldi Mi- Conference on Engineering, Project, and Production Man- orando, "On the relationship between Lean Supply Chain agement, 2020, pp. 537-546. Management and performance improvement by adopting Industry 4.0 technologies", in IEOM 2018, 2018, pp. 2475- Anastasia Efimova ORCID ID: 0000-0002-7930-7026 Tomas Bata University in Zlin Faculty of Management and Economics Department of Industrial Engineering and Information Systems Zlin, 76001, Czech Republic e-mail: efimova@utb.cz Petr Briš ORCID ID: 0000-0001-7027-1648 Tomas Bata University in Zlin Faculty of Management and Economics Department of Industrial Engineering and Information Systems Zlin, 76001, Czech Republic e-mail: bris@utb.cz

Journal

Management Systems in Production Engineeringde Gruyter

Published: Sep 1, 2022

Keywords: Lean; Six Sigma; Industry 4.0; optimization; technologies

There are no references for this article.