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Studies of Penicillium species associated with blue mold disease of grapes and management through plant essential oils as non-hazardous botanical fungicides

Studies of Penicillium species associated with blue mold disease of grapes and management through... AbstractBlue mold caused by Penicillium species is a major fungal disease threatening the viticulture industry in Pakistan, responsible for deteriorating the quality of grapes during handling, transportation, and distribution. Identification-based approaches of Penicillium species provide a better strategy on accurate diagnosis and effective management. In this study, 13 isolates were recovered from symptomatic grape bunches at five main fruit markets of Rawalpindi district, Punjab province. Based on morphological data and multi-loci phylogenetic analysis, the isolates were identified as two distinct species viz. Penicillium expansum (eight isolates) and Penicillium crustosum (five isolates). Meanwhile, the pathogenicity test of Penicillium isolates presented by the inoculation of grape bunches showed various degrees of severity. For improving the fruit quality and eliminating the needs of synthetic fungicides, botanicals such as thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), and carum (Carum capticum L.) essential oils (EOs) at concentrations of 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 mg/mL were evaluated. In vitro studies indicated that thyme EO showed a highly significant reduction of fungal growth. Furthermore, the experiments related to reducing the decay development and average weight loss percentage of grapes revealed similar findings. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that thyme EO can be used as an eco-friendly botanical fungicide against Penicillium spp. causing blue mold disease. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Green Processing and Synthesis de Gruyter

Studies of Penicillium species associated with blue mold disease of grapes and management through plant essential oils as non-hazardous botanical fungicides

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Publisher
de Gruyter
Copyright
© 2021 Salman Ghuffar et al., published by De Gruyter
ISSN
2191-9550
eISSN
2191-9550
DOI
10.1515/gps-2021-0007
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

AbstractBlue mold caused by Penicillium species is a major fungal disease threatening the viticulture industry in Pakistan, responsible for deteriorating the quality of grapes during handling, transportation, and distribution. Identification-based approaches of Penicillium species provide a better strategy on accurate diagnosis and effective management. In this study, 13 isolates were recovered from symptomatic grape bunches at five main fruit markets of Rawalpindi district, Punjab province. Based on morphological data and multi-loci phylogenetic analysis, the isolates were identified as two distinct species viz. Penicillium expansum (eight isolates) and Penicillium crustosum (five isolates). Meanwhile, the pathogenicity test of Penicillium isolates presented by the inoculation of grape bunches showed various degrees of severity. For improving the fruit quality and eliminating the needs of synthetic fungicides, botanicals such as thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), and carum (Carum capticum L.) essential oils (EOs) at concentrations of 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 mg/mL were evaluated. In vitro studies indicated that thyme EO showed a highly significant reduction of fungal growth. Furthermore, the experiments related to reducing the decay development and average weight loss percentage of grapes revealed similar findings. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that thyme EO can be used as an eco-friendly botanical fungicide against Penicillium spp. causing blue mold disease.

Journal

Green Processing and Synthesisde Gruyter

Published: Jan 13, 2021

Keywords: blue mold disease; essential oils; green botanical fungicide; Thymus vulgaris; Vitis vinifera L.

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