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Revista Minelor – Mining Revue ISSN-L 1220-2053 / ISSN 2247-8590 vol. 28, issue 4 / 2022, pp. 51-57 MONITORING OF THE DEPOSIT DISPLACEMENTS AND THE SETTLEMENT BEHAVIOR IN SIMIONEȘTI VILLAGE LOCATION, CORDUN COMMUNE, NEAMŢ COUNTY 1 * 2 Klaus-Gerhart FISSGUS , Nelu ȘTEFAN University of Petroșani, Petroșani, Romania, email@example.com University of Petroșani, Petroșani, Romania, firstname.lastname@example.org DOI: 10.2478/minrv-2022-0030 Abstract: Monitoring the displacements and settlements of tailings deposits is necessary due to stability problems that may arise over time. The paper deals with the monitoring by means of topographical measurements of two tailings deposits located on a site in Simionești village, Cordun commune in Neamț county. Topographic measurements are used to monitor the movement of landmarks located on these deposits and the settlement behavior of the deposit, so that any stability problems can be detected in time. Keywords: deposit stability monitoring, surveying of settlement and displacement 1. General information Monitoring the movements and settlements of tailings deposits is necessary due to problems that may arise over time. Problems and hazards associated with tailings deposits include the following [1, 2]: • slope instability; • the generation of acidic waters and the discharge of toxic substances, leading to the contamination of surface and underground waters downstream; • dust pollution and erosion; • land degradation. In view of these environmental hazards, rehabilitation measures aim to [1, 2]: • improving the stability of landfills; • ensuring stability against erosion; • minimizing the degree of infiltration; • reducing the effects generated by acidic waters and reducing the flow of exfiltrates. The present paper deals with the monitoring by means of topographical measurements of two tailings deposits located on a site in Simionești village, Cordun commune in Neamț county. An aerial view of the studied site from Simionești village is presented below. The two deposits taken into the study are represented with a red outline. On the site, there are still two areas in preparation where other deposits will be created in the future. 2. Preparing and carrying out topographic measurements Landmarks were placed on the tailings deposits to track the behavior over time, materialized through Feno landmarks, one marker in the corner areas of the deposits, and one marker in the center of the deposits. We note that the upper part of the deposits is a flat and almost horizontal surface, covered with topsoil and grass, so that there is good visibility between the monitoring landmarks. Corresponding author: Klaus-Gerhart Fissgus, Lect. PhD. Eng., University of Petroșani, Petroșani, Romania, contact details (University st. no. 20, Petroșani, Romania email@example.com) 51 Revista Minelor – Mining Revue vol. 28, issue 4 / 2022 ISSN-L 1220-2053 / ISSN 2247-8590 pp. 51-57 Figure 1. The location of the studied deposits, in Simionești village, Cordun commune (source: Google Earth) Also, to ensure a unique and stable reference system from one stage to another of measurements, a topographic support base was placed outside the area of influence of the deposits, consisting of two points that were determined by GNSS measurements , marked on plan with GPS-1 and GPS-2. Their coordinates were transcalculated in the Stereografic 1970 projection system with the TransDatRO application , and the elevations in the Black Sea 1975 altimetric system. The Stonex S9 GNSS receiver was used with the TransDatRO application implemented. At each stage of measurements it started from the two stable points. The initial stage of measurements was carried out in October 2016 (also called "zero measurement"), denoted T . Subsequently, each year during the month of October, a measurement session was carried out, respectively in 2017 stage T , in 2018 stage T , 1 2 in 2019 stage T , in 2020 stage T , in 2021 stage T and in 2022 stage T . 3 4 5 6 Equipment used: A Leica TCR 407 power total station was used for the topographic measurements and the construction of the polygonal network. In each measurement session, a closed polygonal network  was carried out on the two stable landmarks, GPS-1 and GPS-2, at the same time determining the coordinates and elevations of the 10 monitoring landmarks. The processing of conventional measurements was carried out using spreadsheet programs , and the drawing up of the situation plan and other graphic representations was done using computer-aided design programs . 3. Calculation of displacement and settlement elements and preparation of the situation plan To exemplify the calculations performed at each measurement stage, we will calculate the displacement and settlement elements for the October 2022 (T ) measurement, relative to the October 2016 (T ) zero 6 0 measurement. The plane coordinates and elevations of the landmark points from the T measurement stage carried out in 2016, used for reference, are presented in table 1. The plane coordinates and elevations of the landmark points from the T measurement stage carried out in 2022 are presented in table 2. Following the comparison of the plan (2D) and altimetric (H) coordinates of the monitoring landmarks from the 2022 stage compared to the 2016 stage, the displacements in the directions of the East and North coordinate axes (ΔE and ΔN) as well as the vertical displacements (settlements ΔH) are presented in table 3. 52 Revista Minelor – Mining Revue vol. 28, issue 4 / 2022 ISSN-L 1220-2053 / ISSN 2247-8590 pp. 51-57 Table 1. „Zero” Measurement 2016 (t ) Landmark Easting [m] Northing [m] Elevation H [m] GPS-1 642136.593 609148.189 200.652 GPS-2 642113.052 609093.049 199.430 PM-1 642036.524 609050.114 199.826 PM-2 642155.842 609016.791 200.431 PM-3 642068.999 609053.181 200.169 PM-4 642097.398 609069.310 199.841 PM-5 642118.876 609064.154 199.742 PM-6 642029.405 609070.120 199.496 PM-7 642092.476 609034.051 199.953 PM-8 642098.306 608971.477 198.631 PM-9 642203.122 608950.758 198.610 PM-10 642231.561 609053.389 199.416 Table 2. Measurement 2022 (t ) Landmark Easting [m] Northing [m] Elevation H [m] GPS-1 642136.593 609148.189 200.652 GPS-2 642113.052 609093.049 199.430 PM-1 642036.533 609050.111 199.821 PM-2 642155.853 609016.802 200.417 PM-3 642069.006 609053.183 200.167 PM-4 642097.403 609069.310 199.837 PM-5 642118.881 609064.159 199.735 PM-6 642029.408 609070.113 199.494 PM-7 642092.480 609034.053 199.946 PM-8 642098.316 608971.480 198.624 PM-9 642203.145 608950.772 198.601 PM-10 642231.565 609053.414 199.360 Table 3. Differences 2022 stage compared to the 2016 stage Landmark ΔE (t -t ) [m] ΔN (t -t ) [m] ΔH (t -t ) [m] 6 0 6 0 6 0 (dif. Easting) (dif. Northing) (Settlement) PM-1 0.009 -0.003 -0.005 PM-2 0.011 0.011 -0.014 PM-3 0.007 0.002 -0.002 PM-4 0.005 0.000 -0.004 PM-5 0.005 0.005 -0.007 PM-6 0.003 -0.007 -0.002 PM-7 0.004 0.002 -0.007 PM-8 0.010 0.003 -0.007 PM-9 0.023 0.014 -0.009 PM-10 0.004 0.025 -0.056 where: t represents the stage of measurements carried out in 2016; t represents the stage of measurements carried out in 2022; ΔE, ΔN, ΔH represent the differences in coordinates and elevations between the stages of measurements. Based on these differences in coordinates and elevations, the displacement vectors of the monitoring points were calculated in the horizontal plane, and the direction (azimuth) in which the displacement was made. Also, for the complete characterization of the displacements, the size of the spatial displacement vectors (3D) and their inclination with respect to the horizontal was calculated, as shown in the following table [5, 6]: 53 Revista Minelor – Mining Revue vol. 28, issue 4 / 2022 ISSN-L 1220-2053 / ISSN 2247-8590 pp. 51-57 Table 4. Displacement vectors of landmarks Horizontal Displacement Vertical 3D Total Displacement Landmark Displacement Azimuth Displacement Displacement Tilt [m] [°] [m] [m] [°] 0.010 105.50 -0.005 0.011 -27.91 PM-1 0.015 44.08 -0.014 0.021 -43.09 PM-2 0.007 77.51 -0.002 0.008 -11.53 PM-3 0.005 93.97 -0.004 0.007 -37.11 PM-4 0.007 45.63 -0.007 0.010 -42.77 PM-5 0.007 156.98 -0.002 0.007 -13.90 PM-6 0.005 66.33 -0.007 0.009 -57.33 PM-7 0.011 75.31 -0.007 0.013 -34.61 PM-8 0.027 57.34 -0.009 0.028 -19.23 PM-9 0.025 9.00 -0.056 0.061 -65.98 PM-10 The horizontal displacements of each landmark were figured on the situation plan according to the direction of displacement, with a red line, to scale. This resulted in the following situation plan, presented only partially: Figure 2. Situation plan with monitoring landmarks and measured displacements. 4. Landmark study of measured displacements in all stages In order to better characterize the evolution over time of the movement of landmarks, we performed a study on each landmark separately, including all measurement stages. In this way one can see the "trajectory" traveled by the monitoring landmark over time. For example, two landmarks were chosen for each deposit that will be analyzed within the scope of this study. On the first deposit we chose the landmarks PM-1 and PM-7. Their coordinates in all stages of measurement are presented in the following tables. 54 Revista Minelor – Mining Revue vol. 28, issue 4 / 2022 ISSN-L 1220-2053 / ISSN 2247-8590 pp. 51-57 Table 5. Landmark PM-1 PM-1 Easting [m] Northing [m] Elevation H [m] T0 642036.524 609050.114 199.826 T1 642036.526 609050.107 199.827 T2 642036.528 609050.108 199.827 T3 642036.527 609050.108 199.824 T4 642036.532 609050.100 199.823 T5 642036.531 609050.097 199.823 T6 642036.533 609050.111 199.821 The graphical representation of the travel path is illustrated in the following figure, both as a planar representation and as an isometric representation. Figure 3. The movement trajectory of the PM-1 landmark over time Table 6. Landmark PM-7 PM-7 Easting [m] Northing [m] Elevation H [m] 642092.476 609034.051 199.953 T0 642092.481 609034.048 199.952 T1 642092.478 609034.051 199.952 T2 642092.481 609034.050 199.951 T3 642092.490 609034.047 199.950 T4 642092.483 609034.044 199.948 T5 642092.480 609034.053 199.946 T6 Below there is the representation of the movement trajectory of the PM-7 landmark in the two variants. Figure 4. The movement trajectory of the PM-7 landmark over time 55 Revista Minelor – Mining Revue vol. 28, issue 4 / 2022 ISSN-L 1220-2053 / ISSN 2247-8590 pp. 51-57 On the second deposit we chose the PM-2 and PM-8 landmarks. Their coordinates in all stages of measurement are presented in the following tables. Table 7. Landmark PM-2 PM-2 Easting [m] Northing [m] Elevation H [m] 642155.842 609016.791 200.431 T0 642155.849 609016.794 200.427 T1 642155.849 609016.793 200.427 T2 642155.849 609016.798 200.423 T3 642155.857 609016.796 200.421 T4 642155.866 609016.798 200.420 T5 642155.853 609016.802 200.417 T6 The graphical representation of the travel path is illustrated in the following figure, both as a planar representation and as an isometric representation. Figure 5. The movement trajectory of the PM-2 landmark over time Table 8. Landmark PM-8 PM-8 Easting [m] Northing [m] Elevation H [m] T0 642098.306 608971.477 198.631 T1 642098.314 608971.479 198.627 T2 642098.314 608971.479 198.629 T3 642098.316 608971.479 198.626 T4 642098.326 608971.476 198.624 T5 642098.332 608971.472 198.624 T6 642098.316 608971.480 198.624 Below there is the representation of the movement trajectory of the PM-8 landmark in the two variants. Fig. 6. The movement trajectory of the PM-8 landmark over time 56 Revista Minelor – Mining Revue vol. 28, issue 4 / 2022 ISSN-L 1220-2053 / ISSN 2247-8590 pp. 51-57 5. Conclusions Following the results obtained through precision topographic measurements in the October 2022 stage and their comparison with the values obtained in the October 2016 measurement stage, a centimetric subsidence (settlement) is found, with values in the range of [0.2 – 5.6] cm for the landmarks materialized in the field. Horizontal displacements with values ranging between 0.5 cm and 2.7 cm were also found for the landmarks materialized in the field. It can be concluded that the landmarks are stable over time, and it is recommended to continue monitoring in annual measurement stages, in order to be able to detect potential stability problems in time. References  Ministry of Economy, Romania The rehabilitation of waste dumps and settling ponds https://www.economie.gov.ro/images/legislatie/Resurse%20Minerale/Mine_Anexa_9.pdf  European Commission, Directorate General JRC Joint Research Center, 2004 Best Available Techniques for Management of Tailings and Waste-Rock in Mining Activities, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Technologies for Sustainable Development, European IPPC Bureau, Final Report, July 2004  Neuner J., 2000 Global positioning systems (in romanian), Matrix Rom Publishing, Bucureşti 2000  National Agency for Cadastre and Real Estate Advertising, Romania (ANCPI) TransDatRO application. https://www.ancpi.ro/wp-content/plugins/download-attachments/includes/download.php?id=7710  Rusu A., Boş B., 1982 Topography – Geodesy (in romanian), EDP, Bucureşti  Vereş I., 2006 The automatization of topographic-geodesic works (in romanian), Universitas Publishing, Petroșani This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons BY SA 4.0 license. Authors retain all copyrights and agree to the terms of the above-mentioned CC BY SA 4.0 license.
Mining Revue – de Gruyter
Published: Dec 1, 2022
Keywords: deposit stability monitoring; surveying of settlement and displacement
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