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Heat and Power System as an Independent Source of Electric Power. Case Study

Heat and Power System as an Independent Source of Electric Power. Case Study The article describes a student capstone design project completed by a team of five students and implemented by a resort and casino in Northeastern Pennsylvania (NEPA). This project was completed within the framework of project-based learning (PBL). Students had the opportunity to apply the knowledge that they learned in the class- room in a real-world application. Students also had the opportunity to work as a team which was supervised by the faculty. The outcome of the project provided valuable experience in creating of grid, a reliable source of en- ergy. The heat generated as a by-product was used for the purpose of heating hot water and a swimming pool as well as space heating for the hotel and casino during the winter. In the summertime the excessive amount of heat was used to dehumidify the air in the hotel and casino. Dehumidifying the air increased the level of comfort in the hotel and casino as well as in the enclosed swimming pools area. The article is focusing on the cost effectiveness of the off-grid heat-and-power solution. The net present value and internal rate of return as well as the payback time were calculated. Key words: PBL, energy, Combined Heat and Power (CHP), student project, learning experience INTRODUCTION The student project described in this article was com- pleted as a part of the project-driven approach to teach engineering courses at The Pennsylvania State University [1, 2, 3, 4]. The project was done for a commercial enter- prise including resort, hotel, casino and racetrack. The fa- cilitate is located in a secluded area in Northeastern Penn- sylvania (NEPA). The electric power to the facility was pro- vided by the local power company. The demand for elec- tric power is 860 kW. In addition to the electric power there was also a need for natural gas for space heating as Fig. 1 Utility consumption prior to Combined Heat and Power well as heating the indoor swimming pool and domestic System water (Fig. 1). The power company providing electricity to the facility A team of five students supervised by faculty was asked to was known for temporary (even a split-of-a-second) ser- find a solution to the problem. A practical problem like vice disruption. Every disruption of service (even a very this allowed the students to apply classroom knowledge short one) was causing the gambling machines in the ca- to a real-world application [5]. Students also had the op- sino to malfunction. These malfunctions could lead to ex- portunity to learn the skills needed to work as a team pensive repair costs. Some electronics needed to be re- member. Involvement in the project allowed the students placed after every disruption of power. There was down- to cross-reference and apply theoretical knowledge time as well as unnecessary repair work. gained in courses previously taken [6, 7]. Students were © 2022 Author(s). This is an open access article licensed under the Creative Commons BY 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) W. GREBSKI, R. ULEWICZ – Heat and Power System As an Independent Source… 263 highly motivated while establishing professional contacts Heat and Power (CHP) is also known as co-generation [13]. and building up their resumes [8]. The team of students Heat is normally a byproduct of electricity generation. In suggested the combined heat and power system as most cases, heat and power are generated separately method of correcting the problem. greenhouse gas emissions [14, 15, 16]. CHP makes it pos- sible to generate heat and power simultaneously. This in- LITERATURE ANALYSIS creases the coefficient of performance and reduces the Problem-based learning is one of the most effective amount of greenhouse gas emissions [17]. These CHP sys- teaching methods [9, 10] and more and more often it is tems are a suitable alternative for commercially secluded also becoming an element of assessment by accreditation buildings. CHP integrated into these buildings is a growing committees of technical faculties [11]. and economically justified alternative [18, 19, 20]. The Adderley, et.al. (1975) [12] were the first to define pro- project was completed as a part of the project-driven cur- ject-based learning as having the following characteris- riculum. Involvement in the project provided the students tics. with valuable industrial experience and helped them learn the skills required to be part of multidisciplinary teams. − projects involve the solution of a problem; often, The topic selected for the project was suitable for teach- though not necessarily, set by the student(s) ing engineering students a comprehensive approach to − projects involve initiative by the student or group of engineering design. students, and necessitate a variety, of educational ac- tivities, COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT TECHNICALLY − projects commonly result in an end product (e.g., the- POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS sis, report, design plans, computer program and Four different solutions for supplying electric power to model), the hotel, resort and casino have been identified. − work often goes on for a considerable length of time, 1. Using the electric energy from the grid as well as nat- − teaching staff are involved in an advisory, rather than ural gas (for heating) [21, 22], authoritarian, role at any or all of the stages – initia- 2. Onsite combined heat and power system for generat- tion, conduct and conclusion. ing electricity and heat [23, 24], The implemented project meets the requirements of the 3. Installing a 1 MW wind turbine and a 1 MW solar array project (PBL) and is an active form of teaching focused on [25, 26, 27, 28], the student. The course project is characterized by stu- 4. Regional (bigger in size) combined heat and power co- dent autonomy, constructive research, goal setting, col- generation system [29, 30]. laboration, communication and reflection within real- SWOT analysis [31, 32, 33, 34] of the four technically pos- world practices. sible solutions is listed in Table 1. Table 1 SWOT analysis of different solutions Solution Strengths (S) Weaknesses (W) Opportunities (O) Threats (T) Periodical disruption No need to maintain 1. Using the electric energy of electric power. electric power generator No need for capital High greenhouse from the grid and natural gas High utility cost and internal combustion investment. gas emissions. (for heating). by buying electricity engine, and natural gas. Lower utility cost 2. Onsite combined heat by paying only for natural Need to maintain Lower greenhouse gas and power system gas. internal combustion emissions. Need for capital investment for generating electricity engine and electric No need to work to install the system. and heat. No periodical disruption generator. with other partners. of electric power. Very high cost Totally renewable source 3. Installing a 1MW wind of initial investment. No periodical disruption Dependency on wind of energy. turbine and a 1MW solar Need for extra land of power. or sun. Zero emission array. to accommodate of greenhouse gases. the installation. No periodical disruption Very high initial invest- of electric power. Need for costly ment. 4. Regional (bigger in size) No need to maintain transmission Lower emission Secluded location combined heat and power an internal combustion of electric power of greenhouse gases. of hotel, resort and casino. cogeneration system. engine and electric and heat. Need for more partners in- generator. volved in the project. 264 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2022, Volume 30, Issue 3 Based on the SWOT analysis of the four different solu- tions, the decision was made to install an onsite heat and power system. This solution has the largest number of strengths (S) and opportunities (O) and the smallest amounts of weaknesses (W) and threats (T). RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The research described in this article was conducted by a team of students under the supervision of the Engineering faculty. The students were conducting mainly theoretical research and analysis of different technically possible so- lutions to provide a reliable source of electric power as well as heating and air conditioning to the hotel, resort Fig. 2 Utility consumption after combined heat and and casino. The students were analyzing the data related power system installation to energy usage at the resort, hotel and casino. Many on- site inspections were conducted to take measurements The following steps were followed in this procedurę: and analyze the feasibility of different solutions. SWOT 1. Determining the quantifiable (measurable) product analysis was conducted, and the results were discussed criteria based on brainstorming and reviewing product with the client. The student team was also researching dif- specifications. The following criteria have been se- ferent available heat and power systems. The detailed lected. specification of the CHP system based on the prioritized C1. Grid independent system consumer specification was prepared and submitted to C2. Generator powered by natural gas the potential supplier of the system. After the system was C3. Liquid-cooling system of the engine selected, the detailed documentation related to installa- C4. Power generators compatible with heat exchang- tion and maintenance were prepared. ers C5. Cost factor SELECTION OF THE POWER GENERATION SYSTEM C6. Reliability factor The challenging step in the project was the selection of a C7. Minimal downtime for maintenance commercially available CHP system. Based on the power C8. Low cost of maintenance capacity requirement of 860 kW, the Dresser-Rand CHP C9. Low vibration and noise levels generator fueled by natural gas was selected. This unit C10. Low greenhouse gas emissions provides 860 kW electric power working at an efficiency C11. High efficiency of the liquid-to-liquid heat ex- of 34.7%. A large amount of heat will be generated and changer utilized for space heating as well as heating domestic wa- C12. Cost of the liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger ter, a swimming pool and dehumidifying the air in the ho- C13. High efficiency of gas-to-liquid heat exchanger tel and casino. The heat is being harvested from the cool- C14. Cost of the gas-to-liquid heat exchanger ing system of the internal combustion engine powering 2. Specifying consumer expectations using the Likert the generator. Approximately 721 kW of heat is being har- Scale [35, 36]: vested by installing a liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger. 1) Practically unimportant criterion There are commercially available heat exchangers of that 2) Not important criterion size. In addition, there is a significant amount of heat that 3) Important criterion can be harvested by installing a gas-to-liquid heat ex- 4) Very important criterion changer using the heat from exhaust gases. 5) Most important criterion The amount of heat that can be recovered from this type 3. Determining the weights of the criteria. of exhaust system is 480 kW. The total amount of heat to The weights of the criteria were determined using the Lik- be recovered from the engine cooling and exhaust system ert Scale as well as the fuzzy Saaty Scale (Table 2). is approximately 1200 kW (Fig. 2). The student team de- cided to keep the modifications when purchasing the gen- Table 2 erator and heat exchanger to a minimum. This allows for Weights of criteria assessments a reduced cost of disruptions. The financial analysis of the Assessment Fuzzy Saaty Assessment in the Likert Assessment suggested design needed to be performed to calculate the of Importance Scale Scale return on the initial investment. Practically unimportant 1 1, 1, 1 The selection of commercially available water turbines Not important 2 1.5, 2, 2.5 and electric generators was conducted based on selected Important 3 2.5, 2, 3.5 product criteria and consumer expectations. Very important 4 3.5, 4, 4.5 Most important 5 4.5, 5, 5.5 Source: Based on [36]. W. GREBSKI, R. ULEWICZ – Heat and Power System As an Independent Source… 265 After processing the assessments, it is necessary to de- velop a combined fuzzy decision matrix as shown in the following formula [37]: 𝑥̃ =(𝑎 ,𝑏 ,𝑐 ), 𝑖𝑗 𝑖𝑗 𝑖𝑗 𝑖𝑗 𝑘 𝐾 𝑘 𝑘 𝑎 = min{𝑎 }, 𝑏 = 𝑏 , 𝑐 = max{𝑐 }, 𝑖𝑗 𝑖𝑗 𝑖𝑗 𝑘 =1 𝑖𝑗 𝑖𝑗 𝑖𝑗 𝑘 𝑘 where: a – fuzzy rating, left, b – fuzzy middle rating, c – fuzzy rating on the right, K – customer, i, j = 1, 2, …, n. 4. Selection of the criteria. Fig. 3 Schematic drawing of the combined heat and power The importance of the selected criteria is shown in Table system The water is being used for the following purposes. Table 3 Importance of individual criteria − Space heating of the resort, hotel, casino and restau- Criteria Mark a b c rants, Grid independent system C1 4.5 4.95 5.5 − Heating the domestic water to be used in the resort, Generator powered by natural gas C2 4.5 4.90 5.5 hotel, casino, restaurants, etc., Liquid-cooling system of the engine C3 3.5 4.05 4.5 − Heating the swimming pool in the resort and hotel, Power generators compatible − Dehumidifying the air in the summer to improve the C4 3.5 4.02 4.5 with heat exchangers air quality. Cost factor C5 3.5 3.90 4.5 The combined heat and power system is a sufficient Reliability factor C6 3.5 4.02 4.5 source of electric power and heat for the entire facility. Minimal downtime for maintenance C7 2.5 3.12 3.5 Low cost of maintenance C8 2.5 3.10 3.5 ANALYSIS OF THE COST EFFECTIVENESS Low vibration and noise levels C9 2.5 3.05 3.5 The installation of the combined heat and power system Low greenhouse gas emissions C10 2.5 3.12 3.5 resulted in a reduction of the utility costs. The utility cost High efficiency of the liquid-to-liquid C11 2.5 3.10 3.5 decreased from 136 dollars/hour to 75.20 dollars/hour heat exchanger (Table 4). Cost of the liquid-to-liquid heat C12 2.5 2.90 3.5 exchanger Table 4 High efficiency of gas-to-liquid heat C13 2.5 2.93 3.5 Utility cost before and after installation of a Combined Heat exchanger and Power System (CHP) Cost of the gas-to-liquid heat C14 2.5 2.95 3.5 Cost exchanger Utility Cost before Installation after Installation Consumption: Based on the selected criteria and their importance, the 860 kWh/h company manufacturing the turbines (and the generator) Electricity Average Cost: have been contacted. Based on the provided criteria the Electricity is generated 0.1 dollars/kWh by CHP system company has submitted a proposal. The proposal satisfied Estimated total cost: the specified criteria and was accepted for implementa- 86 dollars/hour tion. Consumption: Consumption: 156 m /hour 235 m /hour HEAT RECOVERY AND USE Average cost: Natural Gas Average cost: The internal combustion engine powering the electric 0.32 dollars/m 0.32 dollars/m generator produces a large amount of heat. That heat is Estimated total cost: 75.20 dollars/hour 50 dollars/hour being harvested by two heat exchangers as shown in Fig- Combined total cost ure 3. Total cost of utilities of utilities Liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger is using heat generated by Total Cost (Gas only) (electricity and gas) cooling the engine. The gas-to-liquid heat exchanger is ex- 75.20 dollars/hour 136 dollars/hour tracting heat from exhaust gases. The exhaust gases are being cooled to approximately 120°C. Cooling the exhaust This resulted in a saving equal to 60.80 dollars/hour. As a below the temperature of boiling water may require a result, the annual saving is 532600 dollars/year. The an- stainless-steel exhaust system because of extensive cor- nual cost of maintenance of the CHP system will be ap- rosion. The temperature of the water supplied by both proximately 30000 dollars/year. After the substitution of heat exchangers is approximately 90°C. the maintenance fee, the annual saving will be 502600 dollars/year. The cost of the initial outlay of the project is $2.9 M. The life expectancy of the system is 10 years. 266 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2022, Volume 30, Issue 3 Table 5 FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF THE PROJECT Discounted annual income This engineering project requires a substantial investment Factor Discounting Discounted ($2.9M). The funding for this project will be secured Year the Income Income through a bank loan. The weighted average cost of capital of Operation 1/(1 + WACC) (CF ) (WACC) for this project is the cost of credit after tax incen- 1 0.965 $485009 tives. 2 0.931 $467921 𝐶𝐶𝐴𝑊 = 𝐾 𝑑𝑇 3 0.899 $451837 where: 4 0.867 $435754 K – cost of the credit after tax incentive (tax incentive dT 5 0.837 $420676 lower the interest rate) 6 0.807 $405598 ( ) 𝐾 = 𝐾 1−𝑇 𝑑𝑇 𝑑 7 0.779 $391525 where: 8 0.752 $377955 Kd – cost of credit (5% for this project) 9 0.725 $364385 T – corporate tax rate (28% for this project) 10 0.700 $351820 Substituting numerical values: 𝐾 = 0.05(1−0.28) = 0.036= 3.6% 𝑑𝑇 Internal rate of return (IRR) represents the return re- Therefore, ceived by the company on the project investment. IRR 𝐶𝐶𝐴𝑊 = 0.036= 3.6% needs to be higher than the cost of capital. Internal rate The financial profitability of the project can be assessed of return can be calculated by solving the following equa- by calculating the following indicators: tion: − Net present value (NPV), 𝐶𝐹 𝐶𝐹 𝐶𝐹 1 2 𝑛 𝑃𝑉 = 𝐶𝐹 + + +⋯+ 2 𝑛 − Internal rate of return (IRR), ( ) ( ) ( ) 1+𝑅𝑅𝐼 1+𝑅𝑅𝐼 1+𝑅𝑅𝐼 − Profitability index (PI), where: CF0 – initial investment, − Return on investment, CF , CF ………..CF – annual income received from invest- (Number of years needed for the full return on the invest- 1 2, n ment. ment) Substituting the numerical values and solving the equa- − Discounted rate of investment. tion for IRR, the internal return rate was calculated to be (Number of years needed for the full return on the invest- IRR = 0.07 (7%). The internal rate of return (7%) is much ment considering the discounted income) higher than the cost of capital. The most important indicators of the profitability of the Profitability index (PI) is the ratio of the total income di- investment are the net present value (NPV) and the inter- vided by the initial expense. The profitability index can be nal rate of return (IRR). calculated using the following formula: The net present value (NPV) of the project is the dis- 𝐶𝐹 𝐶𝐹 𝐶𝐹 1 2 𝑛 + +⋯+ counted income minus the initial investment. NPV can be 2 𝑛 (1+𝑊𝐶𝐶𝐴 ) (1+𝑊𝐶𝐶𝐴 ) (1+𝑊𝐶𝐶𝐴 ) 𝑃𝐼 = 𝐶𝐹 calculated using the following equation. 0 𝐶𝐹 𝐶𝐹 𝐶𝐹 Substituting the numerical values, the profitability index 1 2 𝑛 𝑁𝑃𝑉 = 𝐶𝐹 + + +⋯+ 0 2 𝑛 (1+𝑊𝐴𝐶𝐶 ) (1+𝑊𝐴𝐶𝐶 ) (1+𝑊𝐴𝐶𝐶 ) was calculated to be PI = 1.48. The profitability index indi- where: cates that for each $1 investment the company assets in- CF = initial investment creased by $1.48. WACC = cost of capital CF1, CF2, ……. CFn – incomes in different years CONCLUSIONS If, The PBL method in academia is currently attracting more NPV > 0 (The investment is a good investment) and more attention. Known as teaching based on solving NPV < 0 (The investment is a bad investment) a real problem, "resulting from practice", it is more and Net present value represents the growth of the com- more often used, especially at technical universities. At pany’s assets. Therefore, the objective is to maximize the the heart of the PBL method is a non-trivial problem/task NPV. that students solve in team projects, supported by a fac- Assuming the present cost of electricity and natural gas, ulty. Learning and solving the “real world” problem hap- the annual profit is $ 502600. pens simultaneously. The student project described in the Table 5 shows the discounted income for the first ten article was a successful energy-efficient alternative to the years of operation of the Combined Heat and Power Sys- traditional grid system. Investment in a combined heat tem. (The income is discounted based on the cost of capi- and power system has proven to be a low risk and high tal). return-rate investment. The project was completed as a The calculated NPV after ten years is $1427756. The re- capstone design assignment incorporated into the Engi- turn on investment was calculated to be 5.8 years. The neering curriculum as a part of the project-driven ap- discounted return on investment was calculated to be 6.2 proach to Engineering education. The project was suc- years. cessful in sparking students' interest as well as increasing students' motivation. It also allowed the students to es- tablish professional contacts. These skills, supporting life- W. GREBSKI, R. ULEWICZ – Heat and Power System As an Independent Source… 267 [11] R. Ulewicz, K. Sethanan. Experience with the accreditation long self-education, are useful for entry into and for stay- of technical studies in Poland and Thailand's, International ing in the labor market. The application of the PBL method Symposium on Project Approaches in Engineering Educa- in practice proves that it shapes "design thinking" as well tion, 2020, 10, pp. 149-156. as developing the creativity and innovation of students. [12] K. Adderley. et al. Project Methods in Higher Education. PBL to be introduced at the university, requires good co- SRHE working party on teaching methods: Techniques operation with the environment, adequate infrastructure group. Guildford, Surrey: Society for research into higher and preparation of teachers. The most important element education London, 1975. of the PBL method is the student, whose task is to learn [13] H. Ahn, W. Miller, P. Sheaffer, V. Tutterow, V. Rapp. Op- how to look for and select the necessary information to portunities for installed combined heat and power (CHP) to increase grid flexibility in the U.S. Energy Policy, 2021, solve the given problem. PBL assumes a different role of 157, 112485. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2021.112485 teacher than in traditional teaching – the teacher does not [14] O.A. Broesicke, J. Yan, V.M. Thomas, E. Grubert, S. Derri- dictate what the student is to learn or what sources to ble, J.C. Crittenden. Combined Heat and Power May Con- use. The role of the teacher in the PBL method is to design flict with Decarbonization Goals – Air Emissions of Natural an appropriate set of task situations, which will be a sim- Gas Combined Cycle Power versus Combined Heat and ulation of problems that the student may encounter in Power Systems for Commercial Buildings. Environmental their future professional life. 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Social climate of support for inno- Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and En- vativeness, Production Engineering Archives, 2022, 28(1), ergy, 2011, 225(4), pp. 403-412. pp. 110-116, doi: 10.30657/pea.2022.28.12 https://doi.org/10.1177/2041296710394287 Wes Grebski ORCID ID: 0000-0002-4684-7608 Pennsylvania State University Professor Emeritus 76 University Drive Hazleton, PA 18202, USA e-mail: wxg3@psu.edu Robert Ulewicz ORCID ID: 0000-0002-5694-4284 Czestochowa University of Technology Faculty of Management ul. J.H. Dąbrowskiego 69, 42-201 Częstochowa, Poland e-mail: robert.ulewicz@pcz.pl http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Management Systems in Production Engineering de Gruyter

Heat and Power System as an Independent Source of Electric Power. Case Study

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de Gruyter
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Abstract

The article describes a student capstone design project completed by a team of five students and implemented by a resort and casino in Northeastern Pennsylvania (NEPA). This project was completed within the framework of project-based learning (PBL). Students had the opportunity to apply the knowledge that they learned in the class- room in a real-world application. Students also had the opportunity to work as a team which was supervised by the faculty. The outcome of the project provided valuable experience in creating of grid, a reliable source of en- ergy. The heat generated as a by-product was used for the purpose of heating hot water and a swimming pool as well as space heating for the hotel and casino during the winter. In the summertime the excessive amount of heat was used to dehumidify the air in the hotel and casino. Dehumidifying the air increased the level of comfort in the hotel and casino as well as in the enclosed swimming pools area. The article is focusing on the cost effectiveness of the off-grid heat-and-power solution. The net present value and internal rate of return as well as the payback time were calculated. Key words: PBL, energy, Combined Heat and Power (CHP), student project, learning experience INTRODUCTION The student project described in this article was com- pleted as a part of the project-driven approach to teach engineering courses at The Pennsylvania State University [1, 2, 3, 4]. The project was done for a commercial enter- prise including resort, hotel, casino and racetrack. The fa- cilitate is located in a secluded area in Northeastern Penn- sylvania (NEPA). The electric power to the facility was pro- vided by the local power company. The demand for elec- tric power is 860 kW. In addition to the electric power there was also a need for natural gas for space heating as Fig. 1 Utility consumption prior to Combined Heat and Power well as heating the indoor swimming pool and domestic System water (Fig. 1). The power company providing electricity to the facility A team of five students supervised by faculty was asked to was known for temporary (even a split-of-a-second) ser- find a solution to the problem. A practical problem like vice disruption. Every disruption of service (even a very this allowed the students to apply classroom knowledge short one) was causing the gambling machines in the ca- to a real-world application [5]. Students also had the op- sino to malfunction. These malfunctions could lead to ex- portunity to learn the skills needed to work as a team pensive repair costs. Some electronics needed to be re- member. Involvement in the project allowed the students placed after every disruption of power. There was down- to cross-reference and apply theoretical knowledge time as well as unnecessary repair work. gained in courses previously taken [6, 7]. Students were © 2022 Author(s). This is an open access article licensed under the Creative Commons BY 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) W. GREBSKI, R. ULEWICZ – Heat and Power System As an Independent Source… 263 highly motivated while establishing professional contacts Heat and Power (CHP) is also known as co-generation [13]. and building up their resumes [8]. The team of students Heat is normally a byproduct of electricity generation. In suggested the combined heat and power system as most cases, heat and power are generated separately method of correcting the problem. greenhouse gas emissions [14, 15, 16]. CHP makes it pos- sible to generate heat and power simultaneously. This in- LITERATURE ANALYSIS creases the coefficient of performance and reduces the Problem-based learning is one of the most effective amount of greenhouse gas emissions [17]. These CHP sys- teaching methods [9, 10] and more and more often it is tems are a suitable alternative for commercially secluded also becoming an element of assessment by accreditation buildings. CHP integrated into these buildings is a growing committees of technical faculties [11]. and economically justified alternative [18, 19, 20]. The Adderley, et.al. (1975) [12] were the first to define pro- project was completed as a part of the project-driven cur- ject-based learning as having the following characteris- riculum. Involvement in the project provided the students tics. with valuable industrial experience and helped them learn the skills required to be part of multidisciplinary teams. − projects involve the solution of a problem; often, The topic selected for the project was suitable for teach- though not necessarily, set by the student(s) ing engineering students a comprehensive approach to − projects involve initiative by the student or group of engineering design. students, and necessitate a variety, of educational ac- tivities, COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT TECHNICALLY − projects commonly result in an end product (e.g., the- POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS sis, report, design plans, computer program and Four different solutions for supplying electric power to model), the hotel, resort and casino have been identified. − work often goes on for a considerable length of time, 1. Using the electric energy from the grid as well as nat- − teaching staff are involved in an advisory, rather than ural gas (for heating) [21, 22], authoritarian, role at any or all of the stages – initia- 2. Onsite combined heat and power system for generat- tion, conduct and conclusion. ing electricity and heat [23, 24], The implemented project meets the requirements of the 3. Installing a 1 MW wind turbine and a 1 MW solar array project (PBL) and is an active form of teaching focused on [25, 26, 27, 28], the student. The course project is characterized by stu- 4. Regional (bigger in size) combined heat and power co- dent autonomy, constructive research, goal setting, col- generation system [29, 30]. laboration, communication and reflection within real- SWOT analysis [31, 32, 33, 34] of the four technically pos- world practices. sible solutions is listed in Table 1. Table 1 SWOT analysis of different solutions Solution Strengths (S) Weaknesses (W) Opportunities (O) Threats (T) Periodical disruption No need to maintain 1. Using the electric energy of electric power. electric power generator No need for capital High greenhouse from the grid and natural gas High utility cost and internal combustion investment. gas emissions. (for heating). by buying electricity engine, and natural gas. Lower utility cost 2. Onsite combined heat by paying only for natural Need to maintain Lower greenhouse gas and power system gas. internal combustion emissions. Need for capital investment for generating electricity engine and electric No need to work to install the system. and heat. No periodical disruption generator. with other partners. of electric power. Very high cost Totally renewable source 3. Installing a 1MW wind of initial investment. No periodical disruption Dependency on wind of energy. turbine and a 1MW solar Need for extra land of power. or sun. Zero emission array. to accommodate of greenhouse gases. the installation. No periodical disruption Very high initial invest- of electric power. Need for costly ment. 4. Regional (bigger in size) No need to maintain transmission Lower emission Secluded location combined heat and power an internal combustion of electric power of greenhouse gases. of hotel, resort and casino. cogeneration system. engine and electric and heat. Need for more partners in- generator. volved in the project. 264 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2022, Volume 30, Issue 3 Based on the SWOT analysis of the four different solu- tions, the decision was made to install an onsite heat and power system. This solution has the largest number of strengths (S) and opportunities (O) and the smallest amounts of weaknesses (W) and threats (T). RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The research described in this article was conducted by a team of students under the supervision of the Engineering faculty. The students were conducting mainly theoretical research and analysis of different technically possible so- lutions to provide a reliable source of electric power as well as heating and air conditioning to the hotel, resort Fig. 2 Utility consumption after combined heat and and casino. The students were analyzing the data related power system installation to energy usage at the resort, hotel and casino. Many on- site inspections were conducted to take measurements The following steps were followed in this procedurę: and analyze the feasibility of different solutions. SWOT 1. Determining the quantifiable (measurable) product analysis was conducted, and the results were discussed criteria based on brainstorming and reviewing product with the client. The student team was also researching dif- specifications. The following criteria have been se- ferent available heat and power systems. The detailed lected. specification of the CHP system based on the prioritized C1. Grid independent system consumer specification was prepared and submitted to C2. Generator powered by natural gas the potential supplier of the system. After the system was C3. Liquid-cooling system of the engine selected, the detailed documentation related to installa- C4. Power generators compatible with heat exchang- tion and maintenance were prepared. ers C5. Cost factor SELECTION OF THE POWER GENERATION SYSTEM C6. Reliability factor The challenging step in the project was the selection of a C7. Minimal downtime for maintenance commercially available CHP system. Based on the power C8. Low cost of maintenance capacity requirement of 860 kW, the Dresser-Rand CHP C9. Low vibration and noise levels generator fueled by natural gas was selected. This unit C10. Low greenhouse gas emissions provides 860 kW electric power working at an efficiency C11. High efficiency of the liquid-to-liquid heat ex- of 34.7%. A large amount of heat will be generated and changer utilized for space heating as well as heating domestic wa- C12. Cost of the liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger ter, a swimming pool and dehumidifying the air in the ho- C13. High efficiency of gas-to-liquid heat exchanger tel and casino. The heat is being harvested from the cool- C14. Cost of the gas-to-liquid heat exchanger ing system of the internal combustion engine powering 2. Specifying consumer expectations using the Likert the generator. Approximately 721 kW of heat is being har- Scale [35, 36]: vested by installing a liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger. 1) Practically unimportant criterion There are commercially available heat exchangers of that 2) Not important criterion size. In addition, there is a significant amount of heat that 3) Important criterion can be harvested by installing a gas-to-liquid heat ex- 4) Very important criterion changer using the heat from exhaust gases. 5) Most important criterion The amount of heat that can be recovered from this type 3. Determining the weights of the criteria. of exhaust system is 480 kW. The total amount of heat to The weights of the criteria were determined using the Lik- be recovered from the engine cooling and exhaust system ert Scale as well as the fuzzy Saaty Scale (Table 2). is approximately 1200 kW (Fig. 2). The student team de- cided to keep the modifications when purchasing the gen- Table 2 erator and heat exchanger to a minimum. This allows for Weights of criteria assessments a reduced cost of disruptions. The financial analysis of the Assessment Fuzzy Saaty Assessment in the Likert Assessment suggested design needed to be performed to calculate the of Importance Scale Scale return on the initial investment. Practically unimportant 1 1, 1, 1 The selection of commercially available water turbines Not important 2 1.5, 2, 2.5 and electric generators was conducted based on selected Important 3 2.5, 2, 3.5 product criteria and consumer expectations. Very important 4 3.5, 4, 4.5 Most important 5 4.5, 5, 5.5 Source: Based on [36]. W. GREBSKI, R. ULEWICZ – Heat and Power System As an Independent Source… 265 After processing the assessments, it is necessary to de- velop a combined fuzzy decision matrix as shown in the following formula [37]: 𝑥̃ =(𝑎 ,𝑏 ,𝑐 ), 𝑖𝑗 𝑖𝑗 𝑖𝑗 𝑖𝑗 𝑘 𝐾 𝑘 𝑘 𝑎 = min{𝑎 }, 𝑏 = 𝑏 , 𝑐 = max{𝑐 }, 𝑖𝑗 𝑖𝑗 𝑖𝑗 𝑘 =1 𝑖𝑗 𝑖𝑗 𝑖𝑗 𝑘 𝑘 where: a – fuzzy rating, left, b – fuzzy middle rating, c – fuzzy rating on the right, K – customer, i, j = 1, 2, …, n. 4. Selection of the criteria. Fig. 3 Schematic drawing of the combined heat and power The importance of the selected criteria is shown in Table system The water is being used for the following purposes. Table 3 Importance of individual criteria − Space heating of the resort, hotel, casino and restau- Criteria Mark a b c rants, Grid independent system C1 4.5 4.95 5.5 − Heating the domestic water to be used in the resort, Generator powered by natural gas C2 4.5 4.90 5.5 hotel, casino, restaurants, etc., Liquid-cooling system of the engine C3 3.5 4.05 4.5 − Heating the swimming pool in the resort and hotel, Power generators compatible − Dehumidifying the air in the summer to improve the C4 3.5 4.02 4.5 with heat exchangers air quality. Cost factor C5 3.5 3.90 4.5 The combined heat and power system is a sufficient Reliability factor C6 3.5 4.02 4.5 source of electric power and heat for the entire facility. Minimal downtime for maintenance C7 2.5 3.12 3.5 Low cost of maintenance C8 2.5 3.10 3.5 ANALYSIS OF THE COST EFFECTIVENESS Low vibration and noise levels C9 2.5 3.05 3.5 The installation of the combined heat and power system Low greenhouse gas emissions C10 2.5 3.12 3.5 resulted in a reduction of the utility costs. The utility cost High efficiency of the liquid-to-liquid C11 2.5 3.10 3.5 decreased from 136 dollars/hour to 75.20 dollars/hour heat exchanger (Table 4). Cost of the liquid-to-liquid heat C12 2.5 2.90 3.5 exchanger Table 4 High efficiency of gas-to-liquid heat C13 2.5 2.93 3.5 Utility cost before and after installation of a Combined Heat exchanger and Power System (CHP) Cost of the gas-to-liquid heat C14 2.5 2.95 3.5 Cost exchanger Utility Cost before Installation after Installation Consumption: Based on the selected criteria and their importance, the 860 kWh/h company manufacturing the turbines (and the generator) Electricity Average Cost: have been contacted. Based on the provided criteria the Electricity is generated 0.1 dollars/kWh by CHP system company has submitted a proposal. The proposal satisfied Estimated total cost: the specified criteria and was accepted for implementa- 86 dollars/hour tion. Consumption: Consumption: 156 m /hour 235 m /hour HEAT RECOVERY AND USE Average cost: Natural Gas Average cost: The internal combustion engine powering the electric 0.32 dollars/m 0.32 dollars/m generator produces a large amount of heat. That heat is Estimated total cost: 75.20 dollars/hour 50 dollars/hour being harvested by two heat exchangers as shown in Fig- Combined total cost ure 3. Total cost of utilities of utilities Liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger is using heat generated by Total Cost (Gas only) (electricity and gas) cooling the engine. The gas-to-liquid heat exchanger is ex- 75.20 dollars/hour 136 dollars/hour tracting heat from exhaust gases. The exhaust gases are being cooled to approximately 120°C. Cooling the exhaust This resulted in a saving equal to 60.80 dollars/hour. As a below the temperature of boiling water may require a result, the annual saving is 532600 dollars/year. The an- stainless-steel exhaust system because of extensive cor- nual cost of maintenance of the CHP system will be ap- rosion. The temperature of the water supplied by both proximately 30000 dollars/year. After the substitution of heat exchangers is approximately 90°C. the maintenance fee, the annual saving will be 502600 dollars/year. The cost of the initial outlay of the project is $2.9 M. The life expectancy of the system is 10 years. 266 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2022, Volume 30, Issue 3 Table 5 FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF THE PROJECT Discounted annual income This engineering project requires a substantial investment Factor Discounting Discounted ($2.9M). The funding for this project will be secured Year the Income Income through a bank loan. The weighted average cost of capital of Operation 1/(1 + WACC) (CF ) (WACC) for this project is the cost of credit after tax incen- 1 0.965 $485009 tives. 2 0.931 $467921 𝐶𝐶𝐴𝑊 = 𝐾 𝑑𝑇 3 0.899 $451837 where: 4 0.867 $435754 K – cost of the credit after tax incentive (tax incentive dT 5 0.837 $420676 lower the interest rate) 6 0.807 $405598 ( ) 𝐾 = 𝐾 1−𝑇 𝑑𝑇 𝑑 7 0.779 $391525 where: 8 0.752 $377955 Kd – cost of credit (5% for this project) 9 0.725 $364385 T – corporate tax rate (28% for this project) 10 0.700 $351820 Substituting numerical values: 𝐾 = 0.05(1−0.28) = 0.036= 3.6% 𝑑𝑇 Internal rate of return (IRR) represents the return re- Therefore, ceived by the company on the project investment. IRR 𝐶𝐶𝐴𝑊 = 0.036= 3.6% needs to be higher than the cost of capital. Internal rate The financial profitability of the project can be assessed of return can be calculated by solving the following equa- by calculating the following indicators: tion: − Net present value (NPV), 𝐶𝐹 𝐶𝐹 𝐶𝐹 1 2 𝑛 𝑃𝑉 = 𝐶𝐹 + + +⋯+ 2 𝑛 − Internal rate of return (IRR), ( ) ( ) ( ) 1+𝑅𝑅𝐼 1+𝑅𝑅𝐼 1+𝑅𝑅𝐼 − Profitability index (PI), where: CF0 – initial investment, − Return on investment, CF , CF ………..CF – annual income received from invest- (Number of years needed for the full return on the invest- 1 2, n ment. ment) Substituting the numerical values and solving the equa- − Discounted rate of investment. tion for IRR, the internal return rate was calculated to be (Number of years needed for the full return on the invest- IRR = 0.07 (7%). The internal rate of return (7%) is much ment considering the discounted income) higher than the cost of capital. The most important indicators of the profitability of the Profitability index (PI) is the ratio of the total income di- investment are the net present value (NPV) and the inter- vided by the initial expense. The profitability index can be nal rate of return (IRR). calculated using the following formula: The net present value (NPV) of the project is the dis- 𝐶𝐹 𝐶𝐹 𝐶𝐹 1 2 𝑛 + +⋯+ counted income minus the initial investment. NPV can be 2 𝑛 (1+𝑊𝐶𝐶𝐴 ) (1+𝑊𝐶𝐶𝐴 ) (1+𝑊𝐶𝐶𝐴 ) 𝑃𝐼 = 𝐶𝐹 calculated using the following equation. 0 𝐶𝐹 𝐶𝐹 𝐶𝐹 Substituting the numerical values, the profitability index 1 2 𝑛 𝑁𝑃𝑉 = 𝐶𝐹 + + +⋯+ 0 2 𝑛 (1+𝑊𝐴𝐶𝐶 ) (1+𝑊𝐴𝐶𝐶 ) (1+𝑊𝐴𝐶𝐶 ) was calculated to be PI = 1.48. The profitability index indi- where: cates that for each $1 investment the company assets in- CF = initial investment creased by $1.48. WACC = cost of capital CF1, CF2, ……. CFn – incomes in different years CONCLUSIONS If, The PBL method in academia is currently attracting more NPV > 0 (The investment is a good investment) and more attention. Known as teaching based on solving NPV < 0 (The investment is a bad investment) a real problem, "resulting from practice", it is more and Net present value represents the growth of the com- more often used, especially at technical universities. At pany’s assets. Therefore, the objective is to maximize the the heart of the PBL method is a non-trivial problem/task NPV. that students solve in team projects, supported by a fac- Assuming the present cost of electricity and natural gas, ulty. Learning and solving the “real world” problem hap- the annual profit is $ 502600. pens simultaneously. The student project described in the Table 5 shows the discounted income for the first ten article was a successful energy-efficient alternative to the years of operation of the Combined Heat and Power Sys- traditional grid system. Investment in a combined heat tem. (The income is discounted based on the cost of capi- and power system has proven to be a low risk and high tal). return-rate investment. The project was completed as a The calculated NPV after ten years is $1427756. The re- capstone design assignment incorporated into the Engi- turn on investment was calculated to be 5.8 years. The neering curriculum as a part of the project-driven ap- discounted return on investment was calculated to be 6.2 proach to Engineering education. The project was suc- years. cessful in sparking students' interest as well as increasing students' motivation. It also allowed the students to es- tablish professional contacts. These skills, supporting life- W. GREBSKI, R. ULEWICZ – Heat and Power System As an Independent Source… 267 [11] R. Ulewicz, K. Sethanan. Experience with the accreditation long self-education, are useful for entry into and for stay- of technical studies in Poland and Thailand's, International ing in the labor market. The application of the PBL method Symposium on Project Approaches in Engineering Educa- in practice proves that it shapes "design thinking" as well tion, 2020, 10, pp. 149-156. as developing the creativity and innovation of students. [12] K. Adderley. et al. Project Methods in Higher Education. PBL to be introduced at the university, requires good co- SRHE working party on teaching methods: Techniques operation with the environment, adequate infrastructure group. Guildford, Surrey: Society for research into higher and preparation of teachers. The most important element education London, 1975. of the PBL method is the student, whose task is to learn [13] H. Ahn, W. Miller, P. Sheaffer, V. Tutterow, V. Rapp. Op- how to look for and select the necessary information to portunities for installed combined heat and power (CHP) to increase grid flexibility in the U.S. Energy Policy, 2021, solve the given problem. PBL assumes a different role of 157, 112485. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2021.112485 teacher than in traditional teaching – the teacher does not [14] O.A. Broesicke, J. Yan, V.M. Thomas, E. Grubert, S. Derri- dictate what the student is to learn or what sources to ble, J.C. Crittenden. Combined Heat and Power May Con- use. The role of the teacher in the PBL method is to design flict with Decarbonization Goals – Air Emissions of Natural an appropriate set of task situations, which will be a sim- Gas Combined Cycle Power versus Combined Heat and ulation of problems that the student may encounter in Power Systems for Commercial Buildings. Environmental their future professional life. 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[29] R. De Souza, M. Casisi, D. Micheli, M. Reini. A Review of [35] A. Pacana, D. Siwiec. Universal Model to Support the Qual- Small – Medium Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Tech- ity Improvement of Industrial Products. Materials 2021, nologies and Their Role within the 100% Renewable En- 14, 7872. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14247872 ergy Systems Scenario. Energies 2021, 14, 5338. [36] R. Ulewicz, D. Siwiec, A. Pacana, M. Tutak, J. Brodny. Multi- https://doi.org/10.3390/en14175338 Criteria Method for the Selection of Renewable Energy [30] K. Yun, H. Cho, R. Luck, P.J. Mago. Real-time combined Sources in the Polish Industrial Sector. Energies 2021, 14, heat and power operational strategy using a hierarchical 2386. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092386 optimization algorithm. Proceedings of the Institution of [37] M. Grebski, M. Mazur. Social climate of support for inno- Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and En- vativeness, Production Engineering Archives, 2022, 28(1), ergy, 2011, 225(4), pp. 403-412. pp. 110-116, doi: 10.30657/pea.2022.28.12 https://doi.org/10.1177/2041296710394287 Wes Grebski ORCID ID: 0000-0002-4684-7608 Pennsylvania State University Professor Emeritus 76 University Drive Hazleton, PA 18202, USA e-mail: wxg3@psu.edu Robert Ulewicz ORCID ID: 0000-0002-5694-4284 Czestochowa University of Technology Faculty of Management ul. J.H. Dąbrowskiego 69, 42-201 Częstochowa, Poland e-mail: robert.ulewicz@pcz.pl

Journal

Management Systems in Production Engineeringde Gruyter

Published: Sep 1, 2022

Keywords: PBL; energy; Combined Heat and Power (CHP); student project; learning experience

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