AbstractAmong Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals, around two-thirds of patients present with neuroAIDS, where HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD) are the most prevailing neurological complications. The neuropathology of neuroAIDS can be characterized by the presence of HIV infected macrophages and microglia in the brain, with the formation of multinucleated giant cells. Global predominant subtypes of HIV-1 clade B and C infections influence the differential effect of immune and neuronal dysfunctions, leading to clade-specific clinical variation in neuroAIDS patient cohorts. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) enhances the survival rate among AIDS patients, but due to the inability to cross the Blood-Brain-Barrier (BBB), incidence of neuroAIDS during disease progression may be envisaged. The complex structure of blood-brain-barrier, and poor pharmacokinetic profile coupled with weak bio-distribution of antiretroviral drugs, are the principle barriers for the treatment of neuroAIDS. In the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) era, the frequency of HAD has decreased; however the incidence of asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and minor neurocognitive disorder (MND) remains consistent. Therefore, several effective novel nanotechnology based therapeutic approaches have been developed to improve the availability of antiretroviral drugs in the brain for the management of neuroAIDS.
Biomolecular Concepts – de Gruyter
Published: May 8, 2018
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