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Evaluation of the thermodynamics of a four level system using canonical density matrix method

Evaluation of the thermodynamics of a four level system using canonical density matrix method Abstract We consider a four-level system with two subsystems coupled by weak interaction. The system is in thermal equilibrium. The thermodynamics of the system, namely internal energy, free energy, entropy and heat capacity, are evaluated using the canonical density matrix by two methods. First by Kronecker product method and later by treating the subsystems separately and then adding the evaluated thermodynamic properties of each subsystem. It is discovered that both methods yield the same result, the results obey the laws of thermodynamics and are the same as earlier obtained results. The results also show that each level of the subsystems introduces a new degree of freedom and increases the entropy of the entire system. We also found that the four-level system predicts a linear relationship between heat capacity and temperature at very low temperatures just as in metals. Our numerical results show the same trend. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Thermodynamics de Gruyter

Evaluation of the thermodynamics of a four level system using canonical density matrix method

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Publisher
de Gruyter
Copyright
Copyright © 2013 by the
ISSN
1231-0956
eISSN
2083-6023
DOI
10.2478/v10173-012-0029-5
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract We consider a four-level system with two subsystems coupled by weak interaction. The system is in thermal equilibrium. The thermodynamics of the system, namely internal energy, free energy, entropy and heat capacity, are evaluated using the canonical density matrix by two methods. First by Kronecker product method and later by treating the subsystems separately and then adding the evaluated thermodynamic properties of each subsystem. It is discovered that both methods yield the same result, the results obey the laws of thermodynamics and are the same as earlier obtained results. The results also show that each level of the subsystems introduces a new degree of freedom and increases the entropy of the entire system. We also found that the four-level system predicts a linear relationship between heat capacity and temperature at very low temperatures just as in metals. Our numerical results show the same trend.

Journal

Archives of Thermodynamicsde Gruyter

Published: Feb 14, 2013

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