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Environmental & Socio-economic Studies DOI: 10.2478/environ-2022-0013 Environ. Socio.-econ. Stud., 2022, 10, 3: 12-21 ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Original article Ecological and coenotic features of the Syrovatka river basin in the Emerald network of the Sumy region, Ukraine 1 1 2 3 Ihor Ya. Tymochko , Ihor V. Solomakha , Vasyl L. Shevchyk , Valentyna M. Maliarenko* , 1,4 Volodymyr A. Solomakha Institute of Agroecology and Environmental Management NAAS of Ukraine, 03143, 12 Metrolohichna Str., Kyiv, Ukraine NSC Institute of Biology and Medicine, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13 Volodymyrska Str., Kyiv, 01601, Ukraine ESC Institute of Biology and Medicine, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 2 Hlushkova Avenue, 03127, Kyiv, Ukraine National Scientific Center «Institute of Beekeeping named after P.I. Prokopovich», NAAS, 03680, 19 Academician Zabolotnogo Str., Kyiv, Ukraine E–mail address (*corresponding author): Vmalyarenko12@gmail.com ORCID iD: Ihor Ya. Tymochko: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9893-3869; lgor V. Solomakha: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8853- 2973; Vasyl L. Shevchyk: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5981-3776; Valentyna M. Maliarenko: https://orcid.org/ 0000-0003- 4585-3114; Volodymyr A. Solomakha: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3975-5366 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ A B S T R A C T A number of studies were undertaken in the territory of the “Syrovatka river basin of the Emerald Network of Ukraine (UA0000428 Syrovatka river basin). Based on the data gathered from field work surveys of the area, the characteristics of the habitats (C1.222, C1.224, C1.32, C1.33, C2.33+, С2.34, C3.4, C3.51, D5.2, E1.2, E2.2, E3.4, E5.4, F3.247, F9.1+G1.11, G1.21+G1.41, G1.A1, G1.7, G1.8, G1.A4) are presented according to the area covered and their ecological features. Phytosociological characteristics of habitats were given. As a result of the analysis of the distribution of certain species of sozophytes, a brief description of the status of the identified populations was presented. Populations of vascular plant spec ies protected in Europe (Ostericum palustre, Iris hungarica), Ukraine (Epipactis helleborine, Lilium martagon, Platanthera bifolia), and at the regional level (Carpinus betulus, Campanula persicifolia, Calla palustris, Dryopteris cristata, Inula helenium, Utricularia vulgaris) have been studied in detail. The main threats to the existence of the natural complex of this area, which may appear in the situation of increasing economic impact are drainage and ploughing of floodplains, terracing, and afforestation of meadow-steppe slopes of the ravine. The typological characteristics of artificial and natural forest plantations of the territory were described based on the generalization of details gathered from information on their local management. KEY WORDS: natural habitats, forest types, Syrovatka river basin, Emerald Network, rare plant species ARTICLE HISTORY: received 22 January 2022; received in revised form 20 May 2022; accepted 1 June 2022 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1. Introduction diversity. The area includes habitats of rare and endangered species of animals and plants. The Emerald Network is an ecological network The Convention on the Conservation of Europe’s of areas of conservation importance. The network Wildlife and Natural Habitats was established and has been created to conserve biodiversity in Europe, signed in 1979 in Bern, Switzerland, to protect wild Ukraine and some African countries. It is a system flora and fauna and their natural habitats. Articles 1, of interconnected areas that have been managed, 2, 3, 4, 6.b, and 9 of the Convention are implemented monitored, and accounted for. It ensures the based on Recommendation № 16 “On Areas of Special preservation of the most valuable and typical Conservation Importance” and Resolution № 3, regional components of the landscape and biotic and these were implemented in the establishment of the Emerald Network. The Area of Special 2. Materials and methods Conservation of Nature (ASCI) (a protected area in Europe or North Africa) that is part of the 2.1. Study area Emerald Network contributes to the survival of endangered, endemic, and any other species The River Syrovatka is the only left-bank listed in Annexes I and II of the Bern Convention. tributary of the upper reaches of the River Psel It supports a significant number of species in an with a sub latitudinal character. The river valley area of high species diversity and supports key is located in the depressions between the south- populations of one or more species. It also western spurs of the Middle Russian Uplands on contributes to a large number of species in an area of the south-western slopes of the Voronezh crystalline high species diversity and contains an important massif. The riverbed has a noticeable general and/or representative sample of endangered inclination to the west. The level of the stream pool habitats (biotopes). It also contains habitats of a in the reservoir near the village of Novodmytrivka is special type or different types and is an important 165 m above sea level. The confluence with the area for one or more migratory species. River Psel is 123 m above sea level. The total At the stage of formation and implementation length of the channel is about 60 km. The width of the Emerald Network that is currently underway of the floodplain in the middle part of the flow is in Ukraine, the description of the current state of within 0.3–0.6 km. Height differences in the the natural complex of each specific area is very transverse profile between the upper parts of the relevant. The area of the Emerald Network of plateau and the level of the channel are about Ukraine in the Syrovatka river basin (UA0000428) is 40˗70 m. In the upper and middle reaches, the 35,818.08 hectares. It is important and timely to riverbed is blocked by numerous dams, where record the state of preservation of the natural reservoirs are formed. A feature of the current vegetation, to establish the presence of, and to state of the landscape is the relatively high forest study the status of population viability of cover of the right-bank of the valley with sozophytes (rare species of plants) within the significant ploughing of the left-bank. territory of this area of conservation. It is also essential to survey and identify, and then to keep records of, habitats that need to be preserved by creating special protected areas. Such surveys are especially relevant since this region is one of the district landscape complexes with large elements of natural origin. Accordingly, such sites are promising examples for the restoration of similar landscapes in other territories. The study of ecological-coenotic and phyto- sociological features of the Emerald Network within the North-Eastern Forest-Steppe of Ukraine was carried out by BEZRODNOVA ET AL., 2020а, 2020b, 2021 and TYMOCHKO ET AL., 2021а, 2021b. The Syrovatka River Basin of the Emerald Network was selected for further research. The research will assess the importance of vegetation for stabilizing Fig. 1. Map of the location of the Syrovatka River Basin in the the environmental situation in the region and reveal Emerald Network of Ukraine UA0000428 (Vasyliuk, 2020) new ways to use them for improvement of the ecological environment and quality of life. The Syrovatka river basin (UA0000428) is The aim of this article was to identify and located in the Sumy region (Fig. 1). It has an area characterize the types of biotopes within the of 35,818.08 hectares. This area is characterized by study area, for their appropriate preservation. the diversity of the landscape complexes, which are For this it was necessary to describe the status of confined to the spurs of the Central Russian Upland the identified populations of species protected at with a significant proportion of well-preserved the regional, national and inter-state levels. On this elements of natural origin. Individual parts of this basis, a general assessment of the significance of area can be used as a benchmark for landscaping the Emerald Network of Ukraine in the Syrovatka adjacent territories. According to physical and River Basin is provided. geographical zoning, the territory of the Syrovatka river basin mainly belongs to the Sumy-Trostyanets C1,224; C1.32; C1.33; C1.4; C2.33; C2.34; C3.4; physical-geographical district of the Sumy slope- C3.51; E2.2; E3.4; E5.4 specified areas (within upland region, in the Eastern Ukrainian region, 100-700 ha). It does not match our estimates of Forest-steppe zone, Eastern European (Russian) the indicator by KUZEMKO & BORYSENKO, 2019 plain (ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ECOLOGY, 2006). (Table 1). The total area of aquatic biotopes (group of biotopes C) in the entire territory of this Emerald 2.2. Data and methods Network area is not more than 2000 ha. The presence of this type of aquatic habitat as permanent Reconnaissance studies were performed by a dystrophic reservoirs is improbable from our route-floristic method in July 2020 (TOLMACHEV, observations (C1.4). 1959). The collection of herbarium specimens Habitat of C1.222 are fragmented and distributed and their processing were undertaken according on littoral areas in most reservoirs. In particular, to this method (SCVORTSOV, 1977). Taxonomic these biotopes have been noted in Lake Zhuravlyne names were selected according to the checklist (50,832372 north latitude; 35,033844 east longitude) (MOSYAKIN & FEDORONCHUK, 1999). Descriptions of (TYMOCHKO ET AL., 2021) on the surface water along vegetation areas with rare species were described the straightened riverbed of the River Syrovatka according to generally accepted methods (MIRKIN between Samotoivka-Krasnopillya villages and in ET AL., 2001). The geobotanical descriptions of study Lake Didove, near the Krasnopillya village. plots were made within the natural boundaries of Habitat of C1.224 occurred rarely. These habitat phytocenoses according to phytosociological study. have been observed only within the reservoir of The study plots were laid out within the natural the above-named lake and in floodplains in the boundaries of the phytocоenoses. Areas with an vicinity of the village of Samotoivka (50,801214 area of 30x30 m were selected for forest groups, north latitude; 35,177496 east longitude). for meadow-steppe, meadow, and for swamp 5x5 m. Habitats of C1.32 were found everywhere along Recent literary sources were used to determine the river. It was also common on the water surface of the types of biotopes (KUZEMKO ET AL., 2017; KUZEMKO ponds, formed by artificial barriers. The main ET AL., 2018). An electronic resource was used to dominant is Lemna minor L. with colonies of characterize the relief and indicators of altitudes filamentous algae. A group with co-dominance of (http://www.vhfdx.ru/altitude_map.html). Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid. and Lemna Determination of the share of non-forest type trisulca L. are also common. Groups dominated by biotopes in the transverse profile of the floodplain Wolffia arrhiza (L.) Lorkel ex Wimmer (Lake and extrapolation of measurements for data of forest- Zhuravlyne) have been noted. Usually, synusia of free areas of the floodplain were performed using free-floating plants could be developed with Google Maps. Estimation of forest biotope areas different intensities and form groups of different was carried out based on forest management data. sizes, depending on the weather conditions during To analyze the types of forest and plant the year. conditions, (forest types, and species composition Habitat C1.33 has been noted on the surface of of the stands of the territory), excerpts from the reservoirs. This type of biotope was most often stand inventory indicators of forest land were represented by groups dominated by Ceratophyllum used. Their area is 21,940.4 hectares within the demersum L. Groups with a predominance of Velykyj Bobryk, Verkhnya Syrovatka, Krasnopillya Potamogeton lucens L., P. perfoliatus L., P. gramineus L. Novodmytrivka, Osoivka Forestry of State Enterprise, grow much less frequently. Along the riverbed “Krasnopil’ske lisove hospodarstvo”. The analysis and in artificial reservoirs on the floodplain near of the typological structure of forests was carried the village of Samotoivka (50.801214 north latitude; out according to the methods of the Ukrainian 35.177496 east longitude), fragmented groups school of forest typology (POHREBNIAK, 1955; (10-20 m ) dominated by Ceratophyllum demersum, OSTAPENKO & TKACH, 2002). Data analysis was Potamogeton nodosus Poir. were found. performed by the means of MS Excel 2016 software. Habitats C2.33 and C2.34 were most often represented by small fragments of groups with 3. Results and discussion the dominance of Nuphar lutea (L.) Smith., Sagittaria sagittifolia L., Sparganium emersum Rehmann in According to information in the literature on a littoral shallow waters of ponds. Groups were preliminary list of biotopes in this area it is observed in Lake Didove near the village of advisable to create protected areas (VASYLIUK ET Krasnopillya, in Lake Zhuravlyne, in and around the AL., 2020). The approximate sizes of the areas were village of Zaliznyak (50,830659 north latitude; specified (level P) for biotopes such as C1.222; 35,015160 east longitude), along the riverbed and in artificial reservoirs on the floodplain near Habitat of C3.51 occupied very small areas up Samotoivka village (50,801214 north latitude; to 10 m on the trails and slopes of pastures, where 35,177496 east longitude) in the form of fragments cattle have grazed intensively. We noted only a with an area from 10 to 100 m . There are groups few fragments of these with Bidens frondosa L. with small species composition, which form thickets and Cyperus fuscus L. co-dominant. It is possible, of habitat (C3.4). They were represented by border that the low level of their occurrence was littoral groups up to 10 m with a predominance determined by the weather conditions during the of Eleocharis acicularis (L.) Roem. & Schult. With year or our fieldwork took place too early to co-dominance of Veronica anagallis-aquatica L., observe them. Alisma plantago-aquatica L. Table 1. Habitat types from Resolution 4 of the Bern Convention of the Syrovatka River Basin Resolution 4 Habitat type Site assessment A|B|C|D A|B|C Code Cover [ha] Data quality Representativity Relative surface Conservation Global C1.222 50 M B C A C C1.224 30 M B C A C C1.32 100 M A C A C C1.33 100 M B C A C C2.33+С2.34 200 M B C B C C3.4 30 M B C B C C3.51 10 M D D5.2 500 M B C B C E1.2 2000 M B C B C E2.2 1000 M C C C B E3.4 300 M B C A C E5.4 100 M B C C C F3.247 100 M B C C C F9.1+G1.11 1000 M B C B C G1.21+G1.41 600 M B C B C G1.A1 10000 M B C B C G1.7 3000 M B C C C G1.8 300 M C C C C G1.A4 5000 M B C C C Note. Code: С - Inland surface waters: C1.222 Floating Hydrocharis morsus-ranae rafts; C1.224 Floating Utricularia australis and Utricularia vulgaris colonies; C1.32 Free-floating vegetation of eutrophic waterbodies; C1.33 Rooted submerged vegetation of eutrophic waterbodies; C2.33 Mesotrophic vegetation of slow-flowing rivers; С2.34 Eutrophic vegetation of slow-flowing rivers; C3.4 Species-poor beds of low-growing water-fringing or amphibious vegetation; C3.51 Euro-Siberian dwarf annual amphibious swards; D - Mires, bogs and fens: D5.2 Beds of large sedges normally without free-standing water; E - Grasslands and lands dominated by forbs, mosses or lichens: E1.2 Perennial calcareous grassland and basic steppes; E2.2 Low and medium altitude hay meadows; E3.4 Moist or wet eutrophic and mesotrophic grassland; E5.4 Moist or wet tallherb and fern fringes and meadows; F - Heathland, scrub and tundra: F3.247 Ponto-Sarmatic deciduous thickets; F9.1 Riverine scrub; G - Woodland, forest and other wooded land: G1.11 Riverine Salix woodland; G1.21 Riverine Fraxinus – Alnus woodland, wet at high but not at low water; G1.414 Steppe swamp Alnus glutinosa woods; G1.7 Thermophilous deciduous woodland; G1.8 Acidophilous Quercus-dominated woodland; G1.A1 Quercus – Fraxinus – Carpinus betulus woodland on eutrophic and mesotrophic soils; G1.A4 Ravine and slope woodland An assessment of the level of how representative certain types of natural habitats are within this area: А – The highest, В – big, С – significant, D – insignificant (no further evaluation has been performed according to other criteria). This is the ratio of the area of a particular type of natural habitat within the study area to the sum of the areas of this type of natural habitat in the country. Has gradations: А: 100% >= р > 15%; В: 15% >= р > 2%; С: 2% >= р > 0%. Conservation – an assessment of the degree of preservation of the structure and function of certain types of natural habitats and opportunities for their restoration. This criterion includes three subcriteria: i) the level of preservation of the stru cture; ii) the level of preservation of functions; iii) the possibility of recovery. So, the synthesis of estimates according to these three sub-criteria will allow a choice of one of three options: A – excellent, B – good, C – mediocre preservation or preservation with losses. Global – an assessment of the significance of the object for the preservation of certain types of natural habitats: A – excellent; B – good; C – important. The criterion is used for an integrated assessment of the previous criteria and their significance for the preservation of a particular type of natural habitat throughout the planet (Kuzemko & Borysenko, 2019). Habitats of D5.2 are quite common in the form (coverage less than 1%). The height of individuals of edging along the littoral with water and on the was not more than 70 cm, with the number of lower floodplain. During spring and summer floods, umbrellas in the range of 2-4. these areas were occupied by shallow waters. During Among the meso-xerophilous herbaceous most of the growing season they are dehydrated. vegetation, large areas on slopes were covered by In some places, they have been used for hayfields. habitat E1.2 and in groups in ancient fallows, Groups dominated by Phragmites australis (Cav.) which were at different stages of demutation. In Steud. predominate in terms of area. Groups particular, to the west of the village of Mykhailivske dominated by Carex acutiformis Ehrh., C. acuta L., (50,821160 north latitude; 35,279942 east C. caespitosa L., C. disticha Huds., Scirpus sylvaticus L. longitude), the sloping areas of the hills with a are also common. Calystegia sepium (L.) R.Br., slope angle of 5-100° were occupied by overgrown Lycopus europaeus L., Mentha aquatica L., Scutelaria forests. On the tops of the hills are dominated galericulata L., Symphytum officinale L., Urtica by Poa angustifolia L., Fragaria viridis Duch., co- pubescens Ledeb., Lysimachia vulgaris L. were also dominance Senecio jacobaea L., Picris hieracioides L., found growing here. Plant populations of species Agrimonia eupatoria L., Galium verum L., G. tinctorium rare for the region and European species, including (L.) Scop., Hieracium robustum Fr., Centaurea Ostericum palustre were associated with such substituta Czer., certain species of meadow-steppe habitats. The population of Ostericum palustre Besser forbs Centaurea scabiosa L. and a complex of covered a fairly large area (about 5 hectares by weed species (Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq., Lactuca approximate estimate) and was found by us in serriola L., Artemisia absinthium L.). Near the village similar habitats. Its exact location is in the plots of Samotoivka (50,801214 north latitude; 35,177496 of wet floodplain meadows, near the village of east longitude) steep slopes to the floodplain were Samotoivka (50,815701 north latitude; 35,146875 covered by groups of meadow-steppe vegetation east longitude). As a result of external influences dominated by Carex praecox Schreb., Festuca rupicola on the soil, plant growth sites are also hetero- Heuff. The synusia of long-rhizome perennial grasses geneous. Ostericum palustre was substituted by tall was quite well expressed in its composition of perennial grasses: Carex acutiformis, Eupatorium Equisetum arvense L., Elytrigia repens, Bromopsis cannabinum L., Calystegia sepium, Sonchus palustris L., inermis (Leys.) Holub with species of typical forbs: Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski, Potentilla anserina Cichorium inthybus L., Salvia nemorosa L., Galium L., Ranunculus repens L., Poa palustris L. And other verum, Fragaria viridis, Pimpinella saxifraga L. species: Lythrum salicariа L., Lysimachia vulgaris, There were plots with a dominance of Elytrigia Sium latifolium L., Scutelaria galericulata, Galium intermedia (Host.) Nevski. rivale (Sibth. & Smith) Griseb., Symphytum oficinale, Habitat of E2.2 was present on large areas of Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Filipendula ulmaria (L.) floodplains (Table 1). The largest number of these Maxim., Angelica sylvestris L., Cirsium oleraceum (L.) were located near the village of Verkhnya Syrovatka, Scop. The following species were found: Carex hirta between the villages of Samotoivka and Krasnopillya, L., Veronica chamaedrys L., Rumex hydrolapathum and between the villages of Mykhailivka, and Huds., Pastinaca sativa L., Phleum pratense L., Pokrovka. In particular, in the southern outskirts Trifolium pratense L., Sonchus oleraceus L., Epilobium of the village of Krasnopillya (50,788080 north palustre L., Valeriana officinalis L., Urtica pubescens, latitude; 35,234488 east longitude) damp and dry Stachys palustris L. Ostericum palustre forms a meadows were widespread in the valley of the projective coverage of 10-20%. Plant height is River Syrovatka, with an area of about 200 hectares, about 1,50-1,70 m, with a number of umbrellas of which have been intensively grazed. Species of 10-17 (30 maximum). There are individuals in Poaceae dominate with the grasses: Poa angustifolia, the first and second years of development. Carex Elytrigia repens, Festuca regeliana Pavl., and with disticha, C. hirta, Trifolium repens L., Potentilla an increase in the number of species among the anserina L., Prunella vulgaris L., Ranunculus repens L. forbs: Trifolium repens, T. fragiferum L., T. pratense, co-dominated in areas of old plowed hay meadow. Leotodon autumnalis L. Also, Carex hirta, Potentilla There are single representatives of the species Poa anserinа L., Ranunculus repens L., Poa palustris, palustris L., Plantago major L., Achilea setacea Phleum pratense were co-dominant in slightly lower Waldst. & Kit, Taraxacum officinale Wigg., Lotus plots with fresh meadow-turf. And low-peat soils, corniculatus L., Lysimachianu mmularia L., Ranunculus with projective coverage up to 100% Trifolium acris L., Daucus carota L., Rumex confertus, Glechoma repens, Lotus corniculatus, Ranunculus acris L., hederacea L., Sonchys palustris, Pastinaca sativa, Daucus carota L., Glechoma hederacea, Sonchus Phleum pratense, Angelica sylvestris L., Beckmania palustris, Pastinaca sativa, Angelica sylvestris were eruciformis (L.) Host. Ostericum palustre is asectators growing with less participation. The localities of Ostericum palustre were rare, where this species the section of the straightened bed of the River covered up to 1%. Syrovatka between the railway and the village of Habitat E3.4 was found in large massifs and Krasnopillya. Near the road in the floodplain in was associated with peaty depressions in the front of the bridge, thickets with an area up to 10 floodplain. In particular, in the southern outskirts ares of the association Salicetum triandra, surrounded of the village of Krasnopillya (50,788080 north by willows, were found everywhere on the floodplain. latitude; 35,234488 east longitude) peat depressions Fragments and sometimes large areas (up to around the alders were occupied by groups several dozen) were found in riverine willow of Filipendulion ulmariae Segal ex Westhoff et Den forests. The main species of the first tier were: Salix Held, 1969 with the main co-dominance of Filipendula alba L. (60%), Acer negundo L. (10%). Salix cinerea ulmaria, Lysimachia vulgaris, Ranunculus repens, (15%), Swida sanquinea (L.) Opiz (20%) which Geum rivale L., Vicia dumetorum L., Lythrum salicaria most often grew in the shrub layer. Less common L., Poa palustris, Symphytum officinale, Iris pseudacorus were: Frangula alnus Mill., Viburnum opulus L., L., Potentilla anserina, Angelica sylvestris, Deschampsia Rhamnus cathartica L.. In the layer of grasses various caespitosa (L.) Beauv. The assectators group consisted species of hygrophytes were growing, including: of Carex leporina L., Anthoxanthum odoratum L., Carex riparia Curt. (20%), Angelica sylvestris (5%), Juncus effusus L., Rumex crispus L.. An Inula helenium Gallium palustre L. (3%), and Sium latifolium (2%). L. population was found on such meadows in the Different species (less then 1%) of moisture-loving vicinity of the village of Samotoivka (50,815701 vegetation: Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch., north latitude; 35,146875 east longitude). Lycopus exaltatus L. fil., Equisetum pratense L., Urtica In deciduous forests at logging sites and pubescens, Sonchus palustris, Echinocystis lobata, excessively moist depressions were characterized Mentha aquatica L., Euphatorium cannabinum L., by habitat of E5.4. High-grass complexes of the Tussilago farfara, Lysimachia vulgaris were found forest-glade type were present along the River with rather variable participation and less constancy Kryva (a left-bank tributary of the River Syrovatka) in grassland. (50,784520 north latitude; 35,263468 east longitude) Habitat of G1.21 was found here also in a in the alder forest within the village of Krasnopillya. single contour with habitat G1.41. The right bank There were glades of high grass with an area near the village of Krasnopillya was covered by a of up to 1 a. These places were dominated by large area of these plants. From the river to the Angelica sylvestris, Echinocystis lobata (Michx.) plateau, they were confined to segments of the Torr. & Gray, Lactuca tatarica (L.) C.A. Mey, Sonchus terraced depression and have the appearance of palustris. Near the thalweg depressions and along stripes along the pine terrace. The associations the thalweg around the village of Krasnopillya Urtico dioica-Alnetum and Carici acutiformis-Alnetum (50,801340 north latitude; 35,267703 east predominate. Typical variants of alders also longitude), there were glades with high participation predominate. In the canopy layer Alnus glutinosa (L.) of Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott (up to 20%), Gaertn. (70%) dominated and Acer negundo was Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. (less then 1%), rare. In the undergrowth layer were: Padus avium Stachis sylvatica L. (up to 5%), Campanula trachelium Mill. (1%), Sambucus nigra L. (1%), Acer negundo L. (less then 1%), Cardamine impatiens L. (less (5%). The grass layer was characterized by: then 1%). On the island located in Lake Zhuravlyne Urtica dioica L., Humulus lupulus L., Echinocystis (50,832372 north latitude; 35,033844 east longitude) lobata, Carex riparia, Angelica sylvestris, Gallium there were complexes with co-dominance of Athyrium palustre, and Sium latifolium. filix-femina (L.) Roth, Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill.) Habitat of G1.7 was confined to high areas of the H.P. Fuchs, D. cristata (L.) A.Gray, Thelypteris pine terrace. Some of the patches were observed palustris Schott, Calla palustris L., Calamagrostis north of the village of Krasnopillya and here Quercus canescens (Weber) Roth. In the complex, within robur L. (30%) predominates in the stand with a the topographically unified contour, the biotopes density of 70%, and Betula pendula Roth and Pinus of Pontic-Sarmatian deciduous shrubs (F3.247) sylvestris also grow. Acer tataricum L. (15%) grows were also present and were formed of Pyrus in the shrub layer (60%), Euonymus verucosa communis L., Pinus sylvestris L., Malus sylvestris Mill., Scop., Sorbus aucuparia L., Acer negundo, Prunus Prunus spinosa L., Rosa sp., and Crataegus sp.. The padus L. grow less often. Stellaria holostea L., most common was self seeding Pyrus communis Elytrigia repens, Fragaria vesca L., Polygonatum (up to 100 individuals per 1 ha). odoratum (Mill.) Druce, Poa angustifolia, Peucedanum Complexes of habitats F9.1 + G1.11 in the form oreoselinum Moench, Pteridium aquilinum (L.) of large areas (up to several hectares and in Kuhn. codominate in the grass layer (50%). fragments) were found everywhere. We inspected Epipactis heleborine (L.) Crantz, Campanula (total coverage from 15 to 50%). A significant list rotundifolia L., C. persicifolia L., Rubus saxatilis L., of species were found as assectators: Polygonatum Thalictrum simplex L., Anthericum ramosum L., odoratum (Mill.) Druce, Impatiens parviflora DC., Trifolium alpestre, Veronica officinalis, Agrostis Galeopsis bifida Boenn., Chelidonium majus L., Urtica gigantea Roth, Poa nemoralis L., Clinopodium vulgare dioica, Milium effusum L., Aegopodium podagraria L., L., Carex michelii Host, Chamaecytisus ruthenicus Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Grande, Pulmonaria obscura (Fisch. ex Wol.) Klaskova also grow there. It is in Dumort., Festuca gigantea (L.) Vill., Geranium such forests near the forest lake “Didove” where robertianum L., Geum urbanum L., Cardamine we found one clump of Iris hungarica Waldst. & Kit. impatiens L., and Scrophularia nodosa L. It had 32 vegetative shoots, and was apparently a A population of Lilium martagon L. was found clump of subsenile age. According to locals here (TYMOCKO & SOLOMAKHA, 2020) to the north of the one of the species Pulsatila sp. has been growing village of Krasnopillya (50,801340 north latitude; in the forest. 35,267703 east longitude) in the middle part of Habitat of G1.8 was mostly represented by a the slope of the western exposure ravine (steepness parcel of oaks at a demutation stages. They are 150) within the forest area with maple and ash dominated by stands of pioneer species with oak plantations up to 40 years old, after felling. The only undergrowth in the lower tiers. Thus, Betula pendula, shoot of pre-generative age of this species was Pinus sylvestris, Populus tremula L. grow in low- noted. Single shoots of Epipactis helleborine (L.) lying areas of the pine terrace in the northern Crantz also grew here. outskirts of the village of Krasnopillya with a Habitat of G1.A4 was spread on canyon and crown cover of 60% (the ratio of the sum of the ravine slopes and forest plateau slopes to sand areas of horizontal projections of tree crowns to terraces. Its characteristics are more similar to the total area of the relevant forest area). Sorbus the G1.A1 biotope. Its features are a sparse layer aucuparia, Salix cinerea L., Frangula alnus Mill., of grasses and the growth of synanthropic species. Quercus robur have formed a crown cover of 20%. A special case option is the sloping forests at the In the grass layer (total coverage up to 10%) the transition from the pine terrace to the floodplain. following species predominate: Festuca rubra L., Self-seeding young trees grow on moist soils. The Lysimachia vulgaris, Pyrola rotundifolia L., Veronica main dominants were: Pinus sylvestris (40%), Populus officinalis L. Occasionally with species of: Clinopodium tremula (30%), occasionally Robinia pseudoacacia L., vulgare, Carex hirtа, Hieracium sp., Deschampsia Corylus avellana, Viburnum opulus, Malus sylvestris, caespitosa (L.) Beauv., Carex spicata Huds., C. сlosed stands 90%. It generally has a projective grass pallescens L., Hieracium umbellatum L., Geum rivale L., cover of up to 25%, dominated by Equisetum Viola canina L., Platanthera bifolia (L.) Rich., Carex hyemale L. (20%). Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. lachenalii Schkuhr, Galium rivale (Sibth. et Smith) & Steud., Equisetum pratense, Urtica dioica, Galium Griseb., Valeriana officinalis L. Also there are five rivale, and Solanum dulcamara L. Glechoma generative stems of Platanthera bifolia (L.) Rich hederacea L. has been found occasionally. growing here (50,821039 north latitude; 35,143028 We also used information about forest east longitude). Sieglingia decumbens (L.) Bernh management activities in the analysis of ecological occurs in birch groves. and typological features and of forest ecosystems. Habitat of G1.A1 was spread on watershed Therefore, we investigated the existing artificially plateaus, on their gentle slopes and covered a huge created and natural forest groups in the total area areas. Their largest areas were on the left bank of of Krasnopil’ske lisove hospodarstvo, which has the plateau. The upper canopy (closed 70-90%) an area of 21,940.4 hectares. The main forest- was characterized by a predominance of Quercus forming species were Quercus robur (12,593.9 ha, robur (10-40%), Acer platanoides (10-20%), Fraxinus 57.40%) and Fraxinus excelsior L. (4,059.8 ha, excelsior (up to 40%), Tilia cordata (up to 20%), 18.50%). Much smaller, but significant areas were and occasionally Carpinus betulus (sometimes up occupied by Pinus sylvestris (1,524.5 ha, 6.95%), to 40%). In the undergrowth layer (closed from Acer platanoides (1,378.7 ha, 6.28%), and Tilia cordata 10 to 80%) there were most tree species and shrubs: (984.9 ha, 4.49%). Quercus rubra L. (316.3 ha, 1.44%), Sambucus nigra, Euonymus europaeus, E. verrucosus, Populus tremula (291.2 ha, 1.33%), Betula pendula Rosa sp., Corylus avellana, Sorbus aucuparia, Swida (226.5 ha, 1.03%), Alnus glutinosa (219.8 ha, 1.00%) sanguinea Opiz., and Viola mirabilis L., Carex pilosa were much less common. Other tree species have Scop., Polygonum convolvulus L., Lamium maculatum covered small areas, these were: Ulmus minor L., Asarum europaeum L., Stellaria holostea L., Mill. (54.4 ha, 0.25%) Fraxinus lanceolata Borkh. Glechoma hirsuta Waldst. & Kit. co-dominate or (52.5 ha, 0.24%), Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. (42.3 ha, dominate individual clumps in the grass layer 0.19%), Acer campestre (35.5 ha, 0.16%), Robinia pseudoacacia (33.6 ha, 0.15), Acer negundo (28.2 ha, Acer saccharinum L. (1.2 ha, 0.01%), Populus 0.13%), Salix alba (19.2 ha, 0.09%), Phellodendron balsamifera (1.1 ha, 0.01%). Other tree species had amurense Rupr. (15.1 ha, 0.07%), Larix decidua Mill. a share of areas less than 0.01%. (15.0 ha, 0.07%), Malus sylvestris (14.1 ha, 0.06%), The areas covered by forest vegetation are Populus nigra (8.0 ha, 0.04%), Juglans mandshurica represented by 11 edatopes, covering trophic groups Maxim. (5.6 ha, 0.03%), Corylus avellana L. (4.7 ha, from forrest on transitional, relatively poor soils 0.02%), Populus alba (4.1 ha, 0.02%), Pinus pallasiana subirs to forest with oak dominated on rich, fertile (Lamb.) Holmboe (3.3 ha, 0.02%), Populus deltoides soils dibrova and all levels of moisture, except (2.2 ha, 0.01%), Pyrus communis L. (1.9 ha, 0.01%), for very dry (Table 2). Table 2. Distribution of areas of forested plots by edatope (ha) Trophotopes Hihrotopes Total A (bir) B (subir) C (suhrud) D (hrud) 0 (very dry) 0.0 1 (dry) 0.5 289.6 290.1 2 (fresh) 74.9 2,651.1 18,247.5 20,973.5 3 (damp) 67.9 394.9 462.8 4 (moist) 41.9 149.5 191.4 5 (wet) 12.9 9.7 22.6 Total 0.0 74.9 2,774.3 19,091.2 21,940.4 Note. Trophotop (nutrient status) is an ecological factor that characterizes the demanding forest-forming plant species with the richness of the mineral nutrition of the soil and forest-plant conditions: A – forest on very poor soil, with pine or other species (bir); В – forrest on transitional, relatively poor soils (subir); C – oak or pin forest on transitional, relativel fertile soils (suhrud); D – forest with oak dominated on rich, fertile soils (dibrova) Hygrotopism (soil moisture conditions) is an ecological factor that characterizes the degree of demand of plant species to the conditions of soil moisture in the forest The presence of such large areas of these 0.34%), damp maple-linden sudibrova (41.4 ha, habitats, represented by single massifs, favourably 0.19%), moist black alder suhrud (38.6 ha, 0.18%), distinguishes this area from the similar general damp linden-oak-pine suhrud (24.6 ha, 0.11%), area in the Sumy Upland slope region. wet black alder suhrud (12.9 ha, 0.06%), wet black Among the trophotopes, oak forests on rich soils alder hrud (9.7 ha, 0.04%), moist maple-linden (19,091.2 ha, 87.02%) were predominant. There dibrova (7.4 ha, 0.03%). Other forest types have are much fewer oak forest on on transitional, been quite rare: fresh floodplain sudibrova (3.0 ha, relativel fertile soils (2,774.3 ha, 12.64%). Forests 0.01%), wet floodplain sudibrova (1.9 ha, 0.01%), on transitional, relatively poor soils are the least damp oak-pine suhrud (1.9 ha, 0.01%), fresh common (74.9 ha, 0.34%). Forests mainly grow eroded maple sudibrova (1.4 ha, 0.01%), moist on fresh soils (20973.5 ha, 95.60%). Insignificant floodplain willow-poplar suhrud (1.4 ha, 0.01%), areas are occupied by forests on wet soils (462.8 moist floodplain willow hrud (0.8 ha, 0.004%), ha, 2.11%), on dry soils (290.1 ha, 1.32%), and on fresh degraded maple sudibrova (0.7 ha, 0.003%), wet soils (191.4 ha, 0.87%), and the least common and dry eroded maple sudibrova (0.5 ha, 0.002%). are forests on wet soils (22.6 ha, 0.10%).The least According to the trophic conditions of the common were wet conditions (22.6 ha, 0.10%). habitat, common oak has been growing mainly in 23 forest types were identified in the plots covered dibrovas (11,482.3 ha, 91.17%), and much less in with forest vegetation (Table 3). subdibrovas (1,111.6 ha, 8.83%). According to Fresh maple-linden dibrova (16,014.7 ha, 73.00%) the humidity of forest areas, common oak has were prevalent. Fresh linden-ash oak (2,232.8 ha, been growing mainly in the fresh conditions of 10.18%), fresh maple-linden oak (1,512.7 ha, the habitats. (12,200.4 ha, 96.88%), and is quite 6.89%), fresh linden-oak-pine suhrud (1,133.3 rare in dry (210.1 ha, 1.67%) and damp conditions ha, 5.17%) were less well distributed. Other types (181.8 ha, 1.44%), and very rare in moist conditions of forests covered much smaller areas: dry maple- (1.6 ha, 0.01%). It was found that common oak linden oak (289.6 ha, 1.32%), damp linden-ash grows in 10 forest types, the most common of which dibrova (234.1 ha, 1.07%), damp maple-linden is fresh maple-linden oak (dibrova) (9,736.1 ha, dibrova (160.8 ha, 0.73%), moist black alder hrud 77.32%). A much smaller area was covered by (141.3 ha, 0.64%), fresh oak-pine subir (74.9 ha, fresh linden-ash oak (dibrova) (1,369.8 ha, 10. 88%), fresh maple-linden oak (sudibrova) (714.4 ha, vegetation (D5.2; E1.2; E2.2; E3.4) and forest 5.67%), fresh linden-oak-pine suhrud (380.1 ha, (G1.11; G1.21; G1.41; G1.A1; G1). 7; G1.8; G1.A4). 3.02%), and dry maple-linden oak (dibrova) The presence of such large areas of these habitats, (210.1 ha, 1.67%). Other types of forests covered represented by single massifs, favourably distin- small areas. guishes this area among others in the Sumy slope-upland region. In addition, populations of Table 3. Distribution of areas covered with forest vegetation vascular plant species which are protected in Europe (Ostericum palustre, Iris hungarica) (CONVENTION № Names of forest types Area [ha] ON THE CONSERVATION…, 1979), Ukraine (Epipactis 1 Fresh oak-pine subir 74.9 helleborine, Lilium martagon, Platanthera bifolia) 2 Dry eroded maple sudibrova 0.5 (RED DATA BOOK…, 2009), and at the regional level 3 Fresh foodplaine sudibrova 3.0 4 Fresh eroded maple sudibrova 1.4 such as Carpinus betulus, Campanula persicifolia, 5 Fresh maple-linden sudibrova 1,512.7 Calla palustris, Dryopteris cristata, Inula helenium, 6 Fresh degraded maple sudibrova 0.7 Utricularia vulgaris are represented here (ANDRIENKO 7 Fresh linden-oak-pine suhrud 1,133.3 & PEREGRYM, 2012; PANCHENKO & IVANETS, 2019). 8 Damp floodplain sudibrova 1.9 It is necessary to ensure Ostericum palustre 9 Damp linden - maple sudibrova 41.4 development over large areas and for the 10 Damp linden-oak-pine suhrud 24.6 population's restoration in appropriate habitat 11 Moist black alder suhrud 38.6 12 Damp oak-pine suhrud 1.9 conditions to preserve the species in the region. 13 Moist floodplain willow-poplar suhrud 1.4 There may be threats to the natural complex 14 Wet black alder suhrud 12.9 of this area with the case of increasing economic 15 Dry maple-linden dibrova 289.6 influence. The main ones are drainage and 16 Fresh linden-maple dibrova 16,014.7 ploughing of floodplain areas, terracing, and 17 Fresh linden-ash dibrova 2,232.8 afforestation of meadow-steppe slopes of ravines. 18 Damp linden-maple dibrova 160.8 19 Damp linden-ash dibrova 234.1 A separate threat is the active spread, of some 20 Moist black alder hrud 141.3 invasive species (Acer negundo, Parthenocissus 21 Moist floodplain willow hrud 0.8 quinquefolia, Echinocystis lobata) especially in 22 Moist linden-maple dibrova 7.4 well-moistened areas of the floodplain. 23 Wet black alder hrud 9.7 Total 21,940.4 References Ash trees were growing mainly in oak wood Andrienko T.L., Peregrym M.M. 2012. Official lists of regional (dibrova) (4,004.5 ha, 98.64%) and much less in rare plants of administrative territories of Ukraine sudibrovas (55.3 ha, 1.36%). According to the (reference book). Alterpres, Kyiv [in Ukrainian]. humidity of forest plots, this tree species was Bezrodnova O., Tymochko I., Senchylo O., Solomakha V. 2021. Forest typological and botanical features of “Mozh growing mainly in the fresh conditions of the river valley” as the object of Emerald Network. Agroecological habitats (3,993.3 ha, 98.36%) and is quite rare in Journal, 1: 54–67 [in Ukrainian]. moist (53.8 ha, 1.33%) and dry (10.2 ha, 0, 25%) Bezrodnova O., Tymochko I., Senchylo O., Solomakha V., conditions, and very rare in wet conditions (2.5 ha, Shevchyk V. 2020a. Botanical and habitat characteristics of the Emerald Network object Rohanka (Kharkiv region). 0.06%). Fraxinus excelsior L. was growing in 9 forest Agroecological Journal, 4: 6–15 [in Ukrainian]. types, the most common of which are fresh maple- Bezrodnova O., Tymochko I., Solomakha I., Chornobrov O., linden oak (dibrova) (3,229.9 ha, 79.56%) and fresh Bondarenko H. 2020b. 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Environmental & Socio-economic Studies – de Gruyter
Published: Sep 1, 2022
Keywords: natural habitats; forest types; Syrovatka river basin; Emerald Network; rare plant species
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