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Environmental & Socio-economic Studies DOI: 10.2478/environ-2022-0014 Environ. Socio.-econ. Stud., 2022, 10, 3: 22-32 ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Review article Climate change and its impact on urban agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa: A literature review Felix Chari*, Bethuel Sibongiseni Ngcamu Department of Public Management and Leadership, Nelson Mandela University, University Way, Summerstrand, Gqeberha, 6019, South Africa E–mail address (*corresponding author): firstname.lastname@example.org ORCID iD: Felix Chari: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8878-410X; Bethuel Sibongiseni Ngcamu: https://orcid.org/0000-0002- 1507-7583 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ A B S T R A C T Recent surveys have shown that the global urban population is increasing at an accelerated rate. As a result, the associated increased demand for food items has pushed up the overall cost of living for urban dwellers. To mitigate this increased cost of living urban dwellers increasingly find solace in agricultural activities. This surge in urban agricultural activities comes at a time characterized by long term shifts in temperatures, rainfall patterns and general weather conditions. While many researchers have presented evidence of increased urban agricultural activities, there remains a paucity of integrated literature that summarizes climate change issues on urban agriculture. This research reviewed literature on the influence of climate change on urban agricultural operations in sub-Saharan African cities. A narrative review approach was employed to summarize and synthesize findings and make recommendations for future research. The review employed the key terms ‘urban farming’, ‘urban agriculture’, ‘climate change’, ‘peri-urban agriculture’, and ‘urban agricultural production’ to search relevant literature indexed in databases: Scopus, Directory of Open Access Journals, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Academic Search (EBSCO). The choice of these keywords was informed by the authors’ specialist understanding of urban agriculture and climate change. There is consensus among the reviewed literature that climate change affects urban agriculture from production to processing, storage, and distribution. This study also established that the extent and magnitude of climate change impacts differ from one region to another. Therefore, adaptation and mitigation strategies ought to be context specific and not universally applicable. This is important because Africa is a climatologically diverse continent so that the impact of climate change faced by one sub-Saharan African city may be different from that for other cities in other regions. A framework that simplifies the effects of climate change on urban agriculture-dependent households in sub-Saharan Africa was produced. More specifically, this framework is recommended to those urban farmers and policymakers that are involved in mitigating the consequences of climate change as well as achieving food and nutritional security. The authors also recommend this framework for unpacking the knowledge of the influence of climate change on urban agriculture as well as exposing directions for future research. This work adds to the growing body of knowledge in the domain of climate change on urban agriculture-dependent households. KEY WORDS: crop production, livestock production, post-harvest losses, distribution, urban agriculture ARTICLE HISTORY: received 13 June 2022; received in revised form 19 August 2022; accepted 22 August 2022 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1. Background urban population increased from 20% in 1950 to 43% in 2020 (WEF, 2020). The urban population Recently, the World Economic Forum (WEF) of sub-Saharan Africa is estimated to grow by 4% has been actively involved in reporting on urban annually, more than the predicted world average population trends. The WEF (2020) estimated that of 1.9% (WORLD BANK, 2018). Due to harsh global 56.2% of the world population live in urban areas economic environments and the high cost of living and it projects that by 2050 68% of the world for most urban households, the majority of urban population will be urban dwelllers. In Africa, the dwellers have resorted to seeking alternative coping strategies and amongst this urban agriculture is Africa) has been wrecked by catastrophic floods dominant (MAWONEKE & KING, 1998; MASVAURE, 2016). due to amounts of rainfall ranging from 4% to 8% Resultantly, there has been a rise in urban agricultural more intense than before (PINTO ET AL., 2022) and activities, for both poor and rich urban dwellers, these changes in rainfall patterns have been resulting in food and nutritional security and attributed to climate change. On the other hand, hunger alleviation. About 40% of Africa’s urban countries such as Madagascar, Zimbabwe and Angola populations are engaged in urban agriculture have experienced prolonged droughts. Climate (MHACHE & LYAMUYA, 2019). Urban agriculture, in changes have also created favourable conditions the form of crop cultivation, or the raising of livestock for desert red and brown locusts to reproduce in backyards, or on undeveloped plots of land, to and spread. Locusts reproduce faster on warm, supplement food sources, provides fresh food and sandy, and moist soils that are left behind by the offers many urban poor families a viable income. heavy rains of tropical cyclones. The winds which Regardless of the nutritional and economic accompany cyclones make it easier for the locusts significance of urban agriculture to households, to migrate (SALIH ET AL., 2020). Eastern countries, climate change has been posing a threat. The most (Somalia, Ethiopia, and Kenya) and southern Africa affected cities, are in developing countries, are countries (Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and arid and water-stressed, and are in coastal and low- Zimbabwe) witnessed the worst locust plague in lying cities (DUBBELING ET AL., 2019). This study is a the 2019/2020 rainy season, following high literature review on the impact of climate change temperatures, rainfall and cyclone activity in late on urban agricultural activities in the cities of sub- 2019 (MCCABE ET AL., 2021; GOSLING ET AL., 2020). Saharan Africa. Climate change has been contributing to harsh Climate change has also posed a number of risks environmental conditions, health crises, and disasters, in the Southern African Development Community posing fundamental challenges to local economies (SADC) region with an increased frequency of and livelihoods across the globe. Developing countries disasters such as floods, cyclones, and droughts. are more at risk to the adverse impacts of climate In Southern Africa temperatures have significantly change due to their heavy reliance on agriculture increased by 0.4°C every decade between 1961 (RAVINDRANATH & SATHAYE, 2002). Cities in sub- and 2014 across the region (DAVIS & VINCENT, 2017). Saharan Africa have not been spared from climate In the SADC region, the effects of climate change change effects, as many cities have experienced resulted in the displacement of over 500,000 floods, droughts and cyclones for example (DUBE individuals in 2021, the majority of whom moved ET AL., 2021a). Figure 1 shows sub-Saharan Africa from rural to urban regions in search of better and the World: frequency of natural disasters in economic opportunities (RAMIREZ-VILLEGAS ET AL., the years 2000-2020 relative to the 1980s. 2021). In recent years, the city of Durban (South Fig. 1. Sub-Saharan Africa (1) and the World (2): Frequency of Natural Disasters Relative to the 1980s Livelihoods of urban households cannot be extremes by urban and peri-urban farmers in Africa. improved without significantly reversing the effects Climate change has different effects in different areas of climate change and managing urban agricultural of the world. For instance, farmers in some places activities. This development calls for the effective will suffer widespread droughts while others will articulation of climate change impacts and receive more rainfall and experience heavy flooding vulnerabilities to ensure resilience to climatic (NICHOLLS ET AL., 2007). Madagascar’s cities of Antananarivo and Tuléar experience cyclones, heavy climate change, published in English language rains, and winds resulting in severe flooding while from the year 2002 up to 2022. A total of 24 articles Tsihombe, a city in the same country, experiences was identified. After the search these scholars recurring droughts (United States Agency for analyzed, assessed and synthesized the identified International Development (USAID, 2018). It is, literature, qualitatively using thematic analysis therefore, paramount to establish the specific impacts (BOELL & CECEZ-KECMANOVIC, 2014). A topic-centric of climate change on (peri-) urban agriculture in approach of presenting earlier research was used different urban centres. It is to the best of the as opposed to listing results from previous studies. knowledge of these authors that no similar study A qualitative research software, NVivo version 12, has conducted a literature review on the influence of was used to identify, analyse, and report patterns climate change on urban farming households in in the form of themes within the text. The reviewed sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, the primary aim of articles were tabulated with column headings that this study was to establish and describe the impacts included authors, the study fields, and countries of climate change in (peri-) urban sub-Saharan of study. Africa. Prior to that, this study defines the concepts of climate change and peri-urban agriculture. Focusing 3. Description of study area on agriculture in peri-urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa, the researchers ask the research question: Sub-Saharan Africa is a term used to describe How has (peri-) urban agriculture in sub-Saharan the area of the continent of Africa that lies south Africa been affected by climate change? of the Sahara Desert. Sub-Saharan Africa consists The rest of the article is organized as follows: of all African countries with the exception of Arab Section 2 describes and justifies the search strategy Africa (GABER, 2011). Sub-Saharan Africa is shown in used to review the literature, and section 3 describes orange on the map in Figure 2. Sub-Saharan Africa of the study area. Section 4 is the body of the review was chosen because it is one of the geographical article containing the discussion of sources and is areas most at risk from the effects of climate change organized thematically. Finally, section 5 is the (IPCC, 2014). conclusion and offers recommendations on how researchers can conduct further research as a result of this review. 2. Methods and strategy This section describes the research strategy used to conduct a comprehensive peer-reviewed literature search. This literature review article identified peer reviewed journal articles that featured the impact of climate change on urban/peri- urban agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa. A semi- systematic, or narrative, review approach was used in the study to map this field of research, synthesize the state of knowledge, and create an agenda for further research. The researchers started the review process by searching the key words (‘urban farming’, ‘urban agriculture, ‘climate change, Fig. 2. Sub-Saharan Africa map ‘peri-urban agriculture’, and ‘urban agriculture production’) on the multi-database, cross-disciplinary 4. Results and discussion online citation services of Google Scholar. The keywords were selected based on the authors’ 4.1. Definition of climate change collective knowledge of the field of urban agriculture and climate change. The authors also conducted It is of paramount importance in this study that literature reviews relying on citation tracking the concept of climate change is first understood. (snowballing) by considering literature cited by The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change others and citation analysis obtainable from Scopus, (IPCC, 2007) defined climate change as a “change or Google Scholar (BOELL & CECEZ-KECMANOVIC, 2014). in the state of the climate that can be identified by This study includes only studies that were in peer changes in the mean and/or the variability of its reviewed journals in the domain of agriculture and properties that persists for an extended period, agriculture. The agricultural activities of city typically decades or longer”. On the other hand, inhabitants include: animal breading, crop and SHABANGU (2017) viewed climate change as a flower cultivation, fish farming among other phenomenon caused by human activities through activities (LADAN ET AL., 2022). The farmers in sub- burning of fossil fuels, causing shifts in the normal Saharan Africa are more involved in the production climatic conditions such as rainfall and temperature. of short-duration crops. The most popular crops are There is consensus among researchers that climate vegetables followed by maize and cassava. However, change is unavoidable and is likely to increase the fruit trees like oranges, grapes and bananas are not incidence of natural hazards, such as droughts, grown by many of the farmers (OLUMBA ET AL., 2021). cyclones, floods, and heat waves (IPCC, 2012). Some urban farmers are involved in livestock Climate change has been blamed for wind and production, although it is not as common as crop temperature extremes, floods and resulting production. For example, a study in Nigeria indicated landslides, water shortages, drought and dry that multiple farmers are engaged in poultry periods, reduced water tables, seasonal production (OLUMBA ET AL., 2021). Urban farmers unpredictability extreme weathers, storms, cyclones, are also involved in agro-processing of farm produce. and storm surges (SIMATELE ET AL., 2012). Cities, and More so, these urban farmers contribute a significant city inhabitants are directly, and indirectly, affected proportion of raw materials to manufacturing by climate change. Climate change aggravates the and distribution organization (MHACHE & LYAMUYA, urban heat island effect, which results from 2019, 2021). increased residential and industrial activity and the construction of urban infrastructure (LADAN ET 4.3. Impact of climate change on urban agriculture AL., 2022). Consequently, urban agriculture is the sector most affected by climate change especially in This review revealed that some scholars (DUBE cities that heavily rely on agricultural food production. ET AL., 2021b; LACETERA, 2019, MALEKELA & NYOMORA, This study reviews a wide range of literature on 2019; OLUMBA ET AL., 2021) have made great strides this subject. in establishing the impact of climate change on urban and peri-urban agriculture. This literature 4.2. Urban/peri-urban agriculture in Africa review on climate change impact on urban agriculture in sub-Saharan African cities has “Urban agriculture is an industry located in the revealed that studies were conducted in Tanzania intra-urban or peri-urban area of a town, or city, (MALEKELA & NYOMORA, 2019, RAPHAEL, 2015; which grows crops and raises animals, processes NAMWATA ET AL., 2015), Zambia (SIMATELE ET AL., and distributes agricultural products, using human, 2012), Nigeria (OLUMBA ET AL., 2021), Malawi land and water resources, products and services (MATTHEW ET AL., 2021), Kenya (MCCABE ET AL., 2020), found in and around that urban area” (LADAN ET AL, Ghana (ANAAFO & AKOLGO, 2018), Uganda (ISUNJU 2022:2). Urban agriculture is not defined by the ET AL., 2015; KATONGOLE ET AL., 2012), Zimbabwe location but by the fact that it is thrust in, and (DUBE ET AL., 2021b; CHEBANGA ET AL., 2018), interacts with, the urban environment and its needs. Swaziland (SAM ET AL., 2021) and South Africa It ranges from small and large areas within the (SHEZI & NGCOYA, 2016; DUBE ET AL., 2021a). city, or its outskirts, such as on plots, community Presented in Table 1 is a summary of reviewed gardens and balconies, rooftops of buildings or articles tabulated with column headings that include terraces. The use of urban farming differs depending authors, the study fields and countries of study. on the location and environment of the city. The reviewed literature has indicated that climate Urban agriculture encompasses the whole value change either supports or destabilizes agricultural chain running from field to fork, so in addition to activities in sub-Saharan urban centres. An increase crop farming and livestock production, it includes in climate change has adversely, or favourably, agro-processing, supply of inputs, marketing and impacted urban agriculture at different stages of distribution. Different cities in sub-Saharan Africa the agricultural supply chain, from production, such as Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso), Lilongwe processing, storage, distribution and marketing. (Malawi), Cape Town (South Africa), Lagos (Nigeria), Figure 3 shows a schematic presentation of these Bulawayo (Zimbabwe), Lusaka (Zambia) and results which are discussed in the subsections Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo) have that follow. adopted different forms of urban and peri-urban Table 1. Impact of climate change on urban agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa Author Year Article title Source Country Anaafo & Akolgo 2018 The role of urban agriculture in climate Journal of Energy and Ghana change mitigation and adaptation in Natural Resource Ghanaian cities Management Bakyusa Katongole, 2012 Strategies for coping with feed scarcity Journal of Agriculture and Uganda Nambi-Kasozi, Lumu among urban and peri-urban livestock Rural Development in the et al. farmers in Kampala, Uganda Tropics and Subtropics Chebanga Mukumbi, 2018 Postharvest losses to agricultural product Journal of Scientific Zimbabwe Mutetwa & Mtaita traders in Mutare, Zimbabwe Agriculture Davies et al. 2021 Barriers to urban agriculture in sub-Saharan Food Policy Sub-Saharan Africa Africa de Vries, Yigrem & 2016 Greening of Ethiopian Dairy Value Chains: Wageningen University & Ethiopia Vellinga Evaluation of environmental impacts and Research centre identification of interventions for sustainable intensification of dairy value chains Drechsel & Dongus 2009 Dynamics and sustainability of urban Sustainability Science Sub-Saharan agriculture: Examples from sub-Saharan Africa Africa Dube, Nhamo & 2021 Flooding trends and their impacts on coastal Geo Journal South Africa Chikodzi communities of Western Cape Province, South Africa Dubbeling, van 2019 Urban agriculture as a climate change and The journal of field action Global Veenhuizen & Halliday disaster risk reduction strategy Dube, Sibanda & 2021 Adapting peri-urban agriculture to climate Cogent Social Sciences Zimbabwe Chiwara change in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe: A qualitative assessment Gillah et al. 2012 Urban and peri urban dairy farming in East Livestock Research for East Africa Africa: A review on production levels, Rural Development constraints and opportunities’ Guendel 2002 Peri-urban and urban livestock keeping in UK Department for East Africa East Africa - A coping strategy for the poor? International Development (DFID) Harvey 2022 Climate Change Doubled the Likelihood of Natural disasters South Africa Devastating South African Floods Hundreds of people were killed and thousands of homes destroyed in Durban after torrential rains unleashed flooding Isunju, Orach & 2015 Hazards and vulnerabilities among informal International Institute for Uganda Kemp wetland communities in Kampala’, Uganda Environment and Environment & Urbanization Development (IIED) Lacetera 2019 Impact of climate change on animal health Animal Frontiers Global and welfare Ladan et al. 2022 A geographical review of urban farming and IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Global urban heat island in developing countries Environmental Science Malekela & Nyomora 2019 Climate change: Its implications on urban Science and Development Tanzania and peri-urban agriculture in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania Matthew, Chiotha, 2021 Research note: Climate change, peri-urban Landscape and Urban Malawi Orbinski & Byomkesh space and emerging infectious disease Planning McCabe, Barboza, 2020 A Weather and Bio-climatic Case Study of International Center for Kenya Basu et al. Desert Locust Conditions in Northern Kenya, Humanitarian Affairs Technical Paper: Desert Locust and Climate Namwata, Kikula & 2015 Access of urban farmers to land, water and Journal of African Studies Tanzania Kopoka inputs for urban agriculture in Dodoma and Development municipality, Tanzania Olumba, Olumba & 2021 Constraints to urban agriculture in Humanit Soc. Sci. Commun Nigeria Alimba southeast Nigeria Raphael 2015 Revealing the Impacts of Climate Change University of Dar ES Salam Tanzania on Peri-Urban Agriculture and Vegetation Journals Cover in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania Sam, Abidoye & 2021 Climate change and household welfare in Food Security Swaziland Mashaba sub-Saharan Africa: Empirical evidence from Swaziland Shezi & Ngcoya 2016 Adaptation to the Impacts of Climate Change National Research South Africa on Agriculture in eThekwini: A literature Foundation of South review Africa Research Report Simatele, Binns & 2012 Urban Livelihoods under a Changing Climate: Journal of Human Zambia Simatele Perspectives on Urban Agriculture and Development and Planning in Lusaka, Zambia Capabilities: A Multi- Disciplinary Journal for People-Centered Development Zezza, & Tasciotti 2010 Urban agriculture, poverty, and food security: Food Policy Developing Empirical evidence from a sample of Countries developing countries Fig. 3. A schematic presentation of the effects of climate change on (peri-) urban agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa 4.3.1. Effects of climate change on crop production The impact of climate change varied among zones in Africa (DUBE ET Al., 2021b). In an assessment countries and crops and livestock. Studies show of the impact of climate change on urban agriculture variation in the extent to which different crop and in Lusaka, SIMATELE ET AL. (2012) noted that the animal yields have responded to climate change weather had been oscillating between droughts effects. Climate change, through either droughts, and episodes of heavy rainfall which resulted in cyclones or floods, has affected the availability of uncertainties that are associated with climate ground and surface water, resulting in poor quality change, making it difficult to reliably predict weather crop production. Climate change exacerbates the patterns. Subsequently, the shift in rainfall duration vulnerability of cities to the disruption of critical food has also affected germination of rice seeds. The supplies. Changing temperature and precipitation shorter rainy season experienced in Lusaka, Zambia, patterns influence what crops can be grown in a significantly affected urban agriculture activities, given location (LOTSCH, 2007). If the rains do not especially maize production. In another instance, fall during the critical phase of crop growth, both farmers in the city of Dar es Salaam had a decrease in the crop yield and quality is reduced (NAMWATA ET crop yields due to increased temperatures, water AL., 2015). Reviewed studies have revealed that scarcity and a shift in rainfall duration (MALEKELA climate change may lower agricultural production in & NYOMORA, 2019). non-coastal areas due to a shift in agro-ecological Climate change in some countries (DUBE ET AL., is also vulnerable to changes in grain prices due to 2021b; MALEKELA & NYOMORA, 2019) has reduced poor yields or to changes in pasture productivity rainfall amounts contributing to reduction of stream as a result of climate change as illustrated by DUBE flows leading to changes in growing conditions ET AL., (2021b) in their study in Bulawayo where for crops, and subsequently leading to declined poor yield of the maize crop, meant for fodder for agricultural production. A study by DUBE ET AL. cattle, resulted in farmers paying higher costs to (2021a) found that some of the recent flooding in acquire substitute feeds. the city of Cape Town damaged vineyards. A similar Climate change increases the incidence of trend was observed in Dar es Salam where diseases of livestock and other animals, since excessive rains destroyed urban vegetable gardens most diseases are transmitted by ticks and flies, and vegetation (RAPHAEL, 2015). MALEKELA & NYOMORA which thrive in high temperatures. In Dar es Salaam, (2019) found a decrease in crop yields in Dar es poultry diseases such as bacteria, mycoplasma, Salaam due to increased temperatures, water and parasites often contribute to the death of scarcity and a shift in rainfall duration. This study livestock due to climate change (MALEKELA & is corroborated by DUBE ET AL. (2021b) where NYOMORA, 2019). The increased temperatures and Bulawayo farmers faced poor rainfall and extreme decreases in rainfall in Dar es Salaam caused various high temperatures resulting in poor seed germination sources of grasses for feeding livestock to dry up, and scorching of the crop once it had germinated. which lead to reduced livestock outputs (MALEKELA Conversely, an assessment conducted in & NYOMORA, 2019). eThekwini Municipality, South Africa, on the impacts Alterations in temperatures can cause animals of climate change revealed that heat waves and to be more vulnerable to diseases and raise the temperatures over 30°C between October to incidence of certain diseases, leading to an March improve condition for pumpkins, bananas, increased potential of death. Heat stress affects mangoes, and paw paws (SHEZI & NGCOYA, 2016). poultry reproduction. It is reported that heat stress Similarly, an increase in temperature due to climate causes heat-related infertility in male broilers as change, in high-altitude areas which previously well as delaying the process of ovulation and a had low temperatures, allow farmers to have longer reduction of egg yok quality in chicken layers. growing seasons (PRAVEEN & SHARMA, 2019). Some studies (MALEKELA & NYOMORA, 2019; OLUMBA ET AL., 2021) have shown that climate change has 4.3.1. Effects of climate change on livestock negatively impacted the health and welfare of production animals. In Nigeria cities with increased temperatures and heat waves, which resulted in heat stress There are increased efforts to review the effects eventually led to diseases and death of livestock of climate change on livestock in urban areas (ANAAFO (OLUMBA ET AL., 2021). The availability and quality & AKOLGO, 2018; LACETERA, 2019; MALEKELA & of drinking water and feedstuffs have also NYOMORA, 2019). These effects are suggested to be subsequently affected the health and welfare of both direct, and indirect, on livestock production animals. As highlighted by OLUMBA ET AL., (2021) (LACETERA, 2019). Climate change affects the supply it is projected that climate change will continue to of livestock feed through its impacts on water have negative effects on livestock. Increasing supply and increases the competition for water temperatures have been known to affect yield as between livestock, crops and nonagricultural uses. well as meat quality and shell quality of eggs in Livestock farmers use water to feed animals, grow poultry production (LARA & ROSTAGNO, 2013). feed crops, and in product processing. ANAAFO & The higher temperatures have also been blamed AKOLGO (2018) note that urban agriculture in for a decline in dairy production, reduced animal Ghanaian cities is faced with inadequate access to weight gain and reproduction. Contrary to that, in water resources that is attributed to climate change. cooler regions positive impacts are predicted DUBE ET AL., (2021b) found increasing temperatures (AYDINALP & CRESSER, 2008; SHEZI & NGCOYA, 2016). and reduced rainfalls were responsible for reduced Global warming is reducing the intensity and length animal productivity in Bulawayo (Zimbabwe). This of cold periods which is reducing animal feed is substantiated by GUENDEL (2002) who that found requirements, and energy costs for heating of animal that livestock farmers in Nairobi who faced grass quarters (AYDINALP & CRESSER, 2008). However, it shortages due to dry spells consequently relied on is worth noting that studies on how climate change contaminated sewerage water for grass production. is influencing livestock production specifically in In other circumstances, floods in coastal cities of (peri-) urban areas in sub-Saharan Africa are still the Western Cape often led to the washing away of scarce with most of them concentrated in a few animals (DUBE ET AL., 2021a). Livestock production countries such as Nigeria, Kenya and Tanzania. 4.3.2. Post-production effects 2018). Authors (CHEBANGA ET AL., 2018; ATANDA ET AL., 2011) have also discussed climate change as a Post-production losses usually occur during one contributor to increased biological and insect pest of the post-production operations i.e., harvesting, damage to agricultural produce during storage. handling, transportation, packaging, storage, The rate of biological deterioration depends on processing, and marketing. At post-harvest insects several environmental factors, including temperature, and pests jeopardize food security throughout relative humidity, wind speed, and sanitation the developing world. Studies from eastern and procedures. Higher temperatures affect the southern Africa revealed that the highest proportion perishability and safety of fresh produce and the of food waste is encountered in post-harvest losses. storage life of agricultural products is shortened In extreme cases, for example in Nigeria and (DUBE ET AL., 2021b). In general, the higher the Senegal, the majority of farmers experience post- temperature, the shorter the storage life of harvest losses of up to 40% of their dairy products, agricultural products and the greater the amount fruits, and vegetables before reaching the end of loss within a given time (ATANDA ET AL., 2011). consumer (OLUMBA ET AL., 2021). Processing. Environmental conditions, such as Transportation. Few studies (DE VRIES ET AL., humidity, rainfall, and temperature influence both 2016; DUBE ET AL., 2021a) have researched the the quantity and quality of a harvest (GROLLEAUD, impacts of climate change on transportation in 2002). In many African countries, the post-harvest urban areas. Variations in temperature and heavy losses of food cereals are estimated at 25% of the rainfall may adversely affect urban agricultural total crop harvested. Many (peri-) urban farmers transportation systems. Transportation of agricultural lose their produce during harvesting due to pest inputs and agricultural food outputs in urban infestation, while extreme wet weather conditions areas may be disrupted more frequently by storms during harvesting may increase the moisture content or floods. For example, Cape Town, and other coastal of the harvested products causing decay, especially urban areas of the Western Cape in South Africa in incessant rains (KAMINSKI & CHRISTIAENSEN, 2014). are often threatened by floods and road links are damaged (DUBE ET AL., 2021a). In other countries 4.3.3. Prices of agricultural produce that are prone to floods and cyclones, these adverse weather conditions present a hazard to the Climate change translates to an increase in networks at the transportation stage of the supply costs and prices along agricultural supply chains. chain, and a lack of adequate refrigerated transport This increase in food prices directly impacts most has led to the deterioration of agricultural produce. urban consumers as they mostly rely on purchasing When handling and transporting raw milk, higher their food. Farmers have to make significant average temperatures, storms, and high precipitation investments to be able to improve the quality and variations have an impact on the growth of both quantity of products for their consumers. For spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Farmers in instance, climate change has increased urban farm Ethiopian cities reported post-harvest milk losses production costs and, in some cases, farmers between production and sales due to an increase have resorted to irrigating their crops resulting in in spoiling bacteria in raw milk as a result of changes increased electricity bills (DUBE ET AL., 2021b). in average temperatures and sunlight exposure The impact of climate change on animal product (DE VRIES ET AL., 2016). prices could come as a result of increased instability On the contrary, there are existing studies of livestock feed supply (KATONGOLE ET AL., 2012). (PRAVEEN & SHARMA, 2019) that reveal positive Extreme climate conditions such as drought, floods, impacts of climate change on the distribution of heavy storms, and cyclones, may negatively affect agricultural produce in urban areas. In colder crop production, reduce arable land and restrict latitudes, for example, increasing temperatures animal access to pastures (DUBE ET AL., 2021b). result in reduced winter maintenance costs and Seasonal availability and sometimes unavailability of opening of sea and river routes for longer periods stock feeds have resulted in farmers paying of the year. increased costs of feeds in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Storage. Storage infrastructures are affected by and Kampala in Uganda (GILLAH ET AL., 2012). extreme weather events (CHEBANGA ET AL., 2018). Research on climate change and prices of urban Noteworthy among these extreme events is agricultural produce is still scarce. The direct and increasing temperatures that lead to strains on indirect effects of climate change on prices of electricity grids, air conditioning, and refrigeration, both agricultural inputs and produce in many subsequently leading to high storage costs (FOOD cities in sub-Saharan Africa are still to be fully AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS, identified or understood. 4.3.4. Effects of climate change on labour marketing, the extent and magnitude of these performance impacts differ from one region to another. It is evident from this review that climate change has Numerous direct and indirect consequences of both positive and adverse impacts on urban climate change have an impact on labour agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa. Large uncertainties performance. Urban sub-Saharan Africa's dependence remain as to the nature, extent and magnitude of on high levels of human labour in agriculture these impacts. Simultaneously, adaptation and exposes agricultural workers to the harsh weather mitigation strategies are context specific and not caused by climate change, which reduces labour universally applicable. Africa is a climatologically productivity. These impacts relate to temperature, diverse continent and the impact of climate change floods and storms, ultraviolet radiation, and air faced by one sub-Saharan African city may be quality. Farmers in drought-stricken areas are different from how it would affect cities in other forced to irrigate their crops in the intense heat, regions. Based on the findings of this study, it is which forces them to hire more labourers and recommended that localized studies on the raises labour expenses (DUBE ET AL., 2021b). People impact of climate change be conducted to benefit who work in the agricultural supply chain are more farmers, governments, companies, development likely to contract infectious diseases including banks, donors, and other organizations. More so, the cholera, salmonellosis, and malaria as a result of effects of climate change need to be considered the heat stress brought on by climate change. along with other factors that affect agriculture, Heat stress is projected to reduce total working such as the economics of the country, the crop hours in Africa by 2.2% by 2030 (ISUNJU ET AL., 2015). and animal species, land tenure and technology. For instance, significant rains and high temperatures This is expected to assist in formulating climate both enhance the likelihood of disease transmission. change intervention and adaptation strategies. It More so, diseases and pests have become more is also expected to offer theoretical contributions, common as a result of climate change, and some with the aim of advancing academic discourses and farmers now use hazardous farm chemicals that thinking, policymaking and execution of climate are detrimental to the health of farm workers. change intervention strategies in urban environments This is supported by research from Malawi that in sub-Saharan Africa. There is a need for greater demonstrates how extreme weather conditions empirical evidence and quantification of the impact brought on by climate change are a factor in the of climate change in cities. Therefore, further research emergence of infectious illnesses in peri-urban is needed to identify local impacts and to suggest areas (MATTHEW ET AL., 2021). 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Environmental & Socio-economic Studies – de Gruyter
Published: Sep 1, 2022
Keywords: crop production; livestock production; post-harvest losses; distribution; urban agriculture
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