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Building Resilience Attributes of Supply Chains from the Perspective of their Types

Building Resilience Attributes of Supply Chains from the Perspective of their Types We are currently dealing with disruptions in supply chains. They come from faulty production systems, in poor organization of distribution processes or are related to external factors, often unseen. Consequently, it is neces- sary to build resistant chains. This article discusses this topic in the context of the basic types of supply chains, i.e. agile, lean and green. The aim of the study was to assess the types of chains in which the tested production entities are embedded and check if the proposed models of building resilience take this into account. The reason this should be investigated further, is to indicate relationships in areas that are rarely captured in research models. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in the work. Interviews were conducted in over seventy subjects and a critical analysis of the literature on model of resilient supply chains was performed. As a result of the work undertaken, it can be concluded, inter alia, that in the economic reality, there are hybrid chains in which the characteristics of pro-saving chains prevail. It was also established that the proposed research models for resilient chains should take into account, to greater extent, accents compatible with the nature of the chains occurring an economic reality. It is also necessary to extend their content to include pro-environmental compo- nents. At the same time, it is not unequivocal that the chains with the advantage of agility-related attributes are more resistant than the chains in which the greater concentration is attributed to the attributes of lean or green chains. Determining this requires further research. Key words: agile, disruptions, green, lean, resilient supply chain INTRODUCTION − an indication of the relationships between individual Supply chains are increasingly exposed to various types of chain types and the resistant chain; primarily in the disruptions resulting from the natural, market, political, context of the identified research gaps. climate, economic, and many other causes. It is therefore important that the chains are resilient and robust enough LITERATURE REVIEW to maintain or regain disrupted competitiveness. It is re- In definitions of "resilient supply chains" (RSC), emphasis lated to the types of the supply chain [1]. However, while is placed on the aspect of eliminating disturbances there are studies on green, agile or lean chains, this topic through the preparation of appropriate contingency is rarely directly related to the issue of resilience. This is plans, as well as the ability to respond to them in com- because both the resistance research and the chain hybrid pletely unexpected situations [2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. research are in a very early stage of development. The definitions indicate that resilience supply chains are The study aims to: those which can respond to the negative effects of a dis- − determine what types of activities characterizing a turbance by reverting to the same state or a new, more given type of supply chain dominate in economic prac- desirable state. It is also noted that these are chains in tice, which production and distribution systems can meet cus- tomer expectations promptly. The study focuses primarily − identifying what types of chains are predominant, on the supply chain's ability to reduce the likelihood of a − diagnosing whether the proposed models and re- disruption, which is also emphasized in the definitions. search of resistant chains are adequate to the func- This capacity can be developed in various ways. One such tioning hybrids in the economic reality, way is the skillful creation of supply chain types in terms of their resilience. © 2022 Author(s). This is an open access article licensed under the Creative Commons BY 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) 254 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2022, Volume 30, Issue 3 Therefore, it is assumed that resistant chains are those METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH chains that usually form a hybrid of different chain types Taking into account the scientific achievements related to (for example, agile, green, and lean) and can use the prin- the types of chains, it is easy to notice their mutual influ- ciples and tools that are characteristic of them to mitigate ence and benefits resulting from the coexistence of indi- disruptions in the supply chain. vidual attributes. Furthermore, in the majority of chains, We can talk about the resistance of food chains [7] of the there is most likely no dominant agility because of: blood transport supply chains [8] or resistance in the pro- − the nature of the product being moved (because the cess of drug transport [9]. Each of these chains have their demand for it is relatively predictable, it is not charac- own character. terized by a high level of innovation, it does not have Therefore, it can be a chain in which environmental as- a short life cycle, it is susceptible to positive economies pects are of first and foremost important. So, we are talk- of scale related to production), ing about the so-called green supply chain, i.e., one in − permanent relationships with suppliers or recipients which the design of products and the management of (due to the developed trust, unique competencies, their flow up and down in vertically integrated cells is car- high level of transaction costs in the event of a change ried out with particular emphasis on the need to protect of contractors, the permissible geographic distance of the environment [10]. It can be a lean chain, i.e. a chain the supply or sales markets in terms of costs or logis- based on long-term relationships, mutual trust, in which tics time), one strives to reduce costs by reducing all kinds of waste − the high cost of flexibility that is not feasible for chains [11], as well as an agile chain, i.e. in which the chain reacts embedded in a highly competitive cost-driven envi- quickly both in terms of the quantity and time of delivery ronment. of goods and in terms of adapting the type of product of- Therefore, the hypothesis according to which H2. In the fered to the needs of customers [12]. In the economic re- economic reality, hybrids containing different types of ality, we also find several other chains, such as a closed- supply chains dominate, and the promoted agility is not a loop chain, a balanced, elastic, sensitive, or looped chain, dominant attribute. In the definitions of resistant chains but the considerations focus on the three mentioned and (widely analyzed in the cited references), their basic fea- fundamental ones. ture, which is agility, is primarily emphasized. However, Extensive reviews identify research gaps in agile chains the definition proposals lack concentration on the ele- [13, 14], green chains [15], and lean chains [16], as well as ments related to other basic chain attributes, i.e. the lean their relationships. Among other things, it is shown that and green chains. Both chains are recommended for im- hybrids of lean and green chains improve the efficiency of plementation and several empirical studies indicate their an organization in both financial and environmental di- usefulness in terms of financial, operational, image, and mensions [17, 18]. It is also worth noting that relation- environmental benefits. The literature on this subject is ships of this type should also be considered at a more de- exceptionally rich. In connection with the above, it can be tailed level and assess which of the specific attributes of assumed that in the current proposals of the research the chains affect the organization's performance [19]. This framework, as well as in their more specific forms in the may apply to both the tools used (e.g. lean six sigma) [20] form of models, there are no constructs that would take or specific processes (e.g. supplier selection) [21]. In the into account the above-mentioned threads. Therefore, it broader context, i.e. sustainable chains, it is also noted is assumed that: H1. The proposals for the research that a leaner environment is conducive to the creation of framework for resistant chains primarily propose agility environmental, economic, and social balance [22]. Re- constructs and marginally address the content of lean and views in this area reveal many interesting research direc- green chains. tions [23]. It is emphasized that when lean practices are In the first stage of the research, based on primary data, based on supply chain flexibility, business outcomes are it was diagnosed what types of supply chains function in better [24]. It is worth considering that flexibility has a sig- the studied group of entities. For this purpose, medium nificant impact on the building of agility [25]. and large production companies were examined, which Significantly more studies have begun to address more belong to section C according to the statistical classifica- than one supply chain [26], but their reviews conclude tion. The research was carried out with the use of a ques- that the association with building resilience is extremely tionnaire in the form of an interview. To improve the qual- rare [27], resulting from combining the idea of green and ity of the research, enterprises from the Greater Poland resistant chains, i.e. in a situation where we are dealing Voivodeship were selected to be able to directly reach re- with the so-called gresilient supply chain [28, 29]. Atten- spondents who knew the enterprise in the field of logistics tion is drawn to the importance of selecting green suppli- processes. Ultimately, one hundred and fifteen subjects ers in weakened supply chains caused by unstable flows were examined, but 71 questionnaires qualified for the [30], testing lean practices to improve the desired im- research. Over 40 questionnaires without complete data mune capabilities [31], the impact of agility on chain for- were not accepted. The research tool was constructed mation resistant [32] or the benefits of the coexistence of based on the characteristics of chains appearing in the lit- different types of chains[33]. erature on the subject. Agile, green, and lean chains were considered. In total, 45 test items were assessed using the A. MARTYNIAK – Building Resilience Attributes of Supply Chains… 255 Table 2 5-point Likert Scale (where 1 meant "definitely yes" and 5 Activities undertaken in the area of logistics – "definitely not". Average Type The questions were divided into three groups related to Type of activity values of chain product, logistics, and supply chain. In the second stage 1.9 Lean Limiting unnecessary logistics activities was based on the literature contained in SCOPUS and was Optimizing transportation routes checked to determine which types of chains are most of- 2.0 Lean considering costs ten associated with the subject of resistance. Subse- 2.1 Agility Smoothly adjusting to transportation needs quently, through qualitative research, items on chain Reducing the costs of warehousing 2.2 Lean types rarely described in terms of resistance were re- infrastructure service viewed to identify proposed research models. These mod- 2.3 Lean Replenishing stock acc. to historical state els are supplemented with other exemplary models that 2.3 Agility Educing delivery time, allowing higher costs appear in the literature as a foundation for the identified 2.5 Agility Using “flexible” logistics technologies research gaps. A more detailed methodology in this re- Configurating flexible warehousing 2.7 Agility infrastructure gard is presented later in the study. In the final part of the 2.7 Agility Keeping stocks as unprocessed as possible article, the practical aspect of the conducted research was 2.7 Lean Introducing efficient logistics technologies emphasized, pointing to the rarely described relationships 2.7 Green Use of ecological means of transport of the given types of chains with the shaping of chain re- Minimization of environmental losses sistance. 2.8 Green in the inventory management 2.9 Green Use of green warehouses SUPPLY CHAIN TYPES – RESULTS OF RESEARCH Optimization of trans in terms of CO 3.1 Green To identify the nature of the supply chains, questions emissions were asked in three areas: the product being moved, lo- Advantageously from technologies 3.1 Green gistics, and supply chain. In total, there were fifteen test supporting green logistics questions for each type of chain (lean, agile, green). At the product level, enterprises primarily focus on reducing Enterprises primarily manage the supply chain by looking product defects, dedicating products to specific customer for solutions to problems at the source They try to move segments, and reducing the level of hazardous substances goods according to a strictly defined schedule, but at the (Table 1). same time, when necessary, react quickly to emerging sudden delivery needs (Table 3). Table 1 Table 3 Activities undertaken at the product level Activities undertaken at the supply chain level Average Type Type of activity Average Type values of chain Type of activity values of chain Focusing on the decrease of defective 1.6 Lean 1.9 Lean Eradicating problems “at root” products Movement of goods acc. to a specified Taking into consideration individual 2.2 Lean 2.2 Agility schedule needs of recipients Movement of goods on the basis of quick 2.2 Green Limiting dangerous substances 2.2 Agility response/high availability Producing products with predictable 2.3 Lean 2.6 Agility Reducing inflexible links demand Relatively static configuration of supply Focusing on the increase 2.5 Lean 2.3 Lean chains of production efficiency Relatively dynamic configuration of supply 2.5 Green saving material/energy consumption 2.8 Agility chains 2.6 Green Limiting weight Conducting studies with regard to saving 2.7 Agility Producing innovative products 2.9 Lean solutions in supply chains Recycling alone or by thinrd party 2.9 Green Managing risk in terms of environmental entities 3.1 Green damage 3.1 Lean Limiting the quantity of components Participating in the trainings concerning 3.2 Lean Designing low-cost products 3.2 Lean lean supply chains 3.5 Agility Delaying product configuration Organizing the flow of goods with focus Making an assesment of life cycle of 3.2 Green 3.5 Green on environment protection packagings Creating an environmently friendly supply 3.8 Agility Producing short life-cycle products 3.2 Green chain 4.1 Agility Focusing on fad products Conducting studies concerning agileness 3.3 Agility of supply chains At the level of logistics operations, enterprises reduce un- Participating in the trainings concerning necessary logistic activities, optimize routes in terms of 3.4 Agility agile supply chains costs and try to adapt flexibly to the transport needs of Leading courses of environment protection 3.5 Green contractors (Table 2). for partners in supply chain Expanding knowledge of environment pro- 3.6 Green tection 256 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2022, Volume 30, Issue 3 Taking into account the averages obtained from 45 test Additionally, literature on this subject was searched for in items for the types of supply chains, it can be concluded the records contained in bibliographies of searched arti- that all three dimensions examined, i.e. product, logistics, cles. and chain, scored the lowest for lean chains (2.5 – prod- Because agility is a popular attribute of resilient chains, uct; 2.2 – logistics; 2, 5 – supply chain), so these activities the search was narrowed down to the subject of lean and dominate because 1 was the most important (Figure 1). green activities in the next step. Twenty-eight articles were generated in the area in question which also con- tained the slogan "lean" and 32 with the slogan "green". Most articles linked to these activities do not discuss their effects on building immunity. In addition, some works re- lated to linking resilience with sustainable development [34] or with sustainable supply chains, and not only to the pro-environmental aspects. It turned out that there is a large research gap in this area and only a few of them in- clude models. These models are supplemented with other exemplary models with word “agile” (Table 4). Fig. 1 Type of supply chain Table 4 Taking into account agile and green chains, in the group Models and research frames in the field of resilience supply concerning logistics operations and supply chain manage- chains, which include the basic dimensions of resistance ment, fewer points were indicated when it came to agile associated with a chain that is lean, agile, and green Authors Agility Lean Green chains (respectively: 2.5 compared to 2.7 and 2.9 com- M. Al-Talib et al. 2020* [35] ✓ pared to 3.3). In terms of product policy – 2.7 was indi- S. Bag, S. Gupta and C. Foropon cated in the attributed items of green chains, and 3.3 in ✓ ✓ 2019 [36] relation to agile chains. Based on the data obtained, ana- A. Belhadi et al. 2021 *[37] ✓ lyzing individual 45 attributes, it can be concluded that E. Brandon-Jones et al. 2014 *[38] ✓ supply chains are obvious hybrids in which activities re- H. Carvalho, G. Azevedo lated to lean activities predominate, then agile and, lastly, ✓ and V. Cruz-Machado 2012 *[33] green. As a result of the conducted research, it can be con- M.H. Chowdhury and M. Quaddus cluded that, despite the slogans about the need to oper- 2017 [39] ate dynamically in an agile environment at the chain level, M. Christopher and H. Peck 2004 *[40] ✓ ✓ lean strategies are primarily adopted. This is probably due Y. Cui, H. Idota and M. Ota 2019 *[41] ✓ to the fact that the greatest value comes from long-lasting G.F. Frederico 2021 *[42] ✓ relationships, which lower transaction costs and increase S.K. Gouda and C. Foropon 2018 [43] ✓ trust in business partners. It is especially justified at the L. Ji, C. Yuan, T. Feng and C. Wang 2020 [44] beginning of the chain, because its efficient supply deter- G.S. Hundal et al. 2021 [45] ✓ ✓ mines timely production and sale. It can be assumed that D. Ivanov 2021*[46] ✓ a greater dynamic of activities usually occurs at the exit of N. Johnson, D. Elliott and P. Drake the chain due to the search for new customer segments in 2013 *[47] terms of products and geography. U. Jüttner and S. Maklan 2011 *[48] ✓ C.L. Liu et al. 2018 [49] ✓ RSC MODELS AND THEIR RELATION TO THE TYPES A. Mohammed 2020 [28] ✓ OF THE CHAIN – RESULTS OF RESEARCH M.S. Mubarik et al. 2021 *[50] ✓ The depiction of the issue related to the types of the sup- C.R. Pereira, M. Christopher ply chain is a starting point for broader analyzes in the and A.L. Da Silva 2014 *[51] context of their relationship with resilient chains. When R. Rajesh 2020 [52] ✓ ✓ we consider it on this level, it is reasonable to distinguish Q. Schoen et al. 2018 [4] the pillars of resistant chains. The starting point for sys- C.S. Singh, G. Soni and G.K. Badhotiya 2019* [53] tematization was bibliometric research based on SCOPUS. U. Soni, V. Jain and S. Kumar 2014 *[54] The search path was adopted as literature resources con- V.L.M. Spiegler, M.M. Naim taining the words: resilient/resilience and supply chain in and J. Wikner 2012 [55] the title. A. Spieske and H. Birkel 2021 *[56] In total, 886 items were generated, but some of them , for B.R. Tukamuhabwa et al. 2015 [5] ✓ example, related to cybersecurity or resilience built with M. Umar, M. Wilson and J. Heyl the use of technology 4.0. The number of literature re- ✓ 2021 [6] sources is growing rapidly. In 2021, there were 261, in A. Wieland and C.M. Wallenburg 2020 – 128, and in just the first month of 2022-25. The 2013 [57] largest number of affiliations is from the United States, A. Zavala-Alcívar, M.J. Verdecho ✓ ✓ Great Britain, China, and India. They then searched for and J.J. Alfaro-Saiz 2020 *[58] agility, green, or lean in the titles. A. MARTYNIAK – Building Resilience Attributes of Supply Chains… 257 The list includes models in which: management tools help reduce losses in the procure- − the password "agility" or "flexibility" appeared, usually ment, production, and distribution process and thus af- fect the resilience of the chain [60]. treated as part of "agility", For example, VMI increases the integration between sup- − lean management terms such as "process mapping", plier and manufacturer. On a trust basis, data is shared "Lean SixSigma" or "standardization", with suppliers, so you can control inventory flows more − the password was "green". smoothly. Process Mapping (VSM) enables the identifica- Many models have the slogan "visibility", which can be as- tion of non-value-added activities as well as the identifi- signed to both agile chains (usually about the chain con- cation of tipping points that disrupt the flows. Process vis- figuration, its visibility) and lean chains (usually about sep- ualization allows you to increase the transparency of sup- arate processes – for example, warehouse or production). ply chains, which are the basic pillar of resilient chains. In In model terms, this is not always precisely defined, but it turn, the poka-yoke system allows you to prevent errors can be assumed that in the majority of cases, it is not re- by improving the organization of work. Standardization of lated to lean practices. Models that included these terms work and visualization enables more transparent pro- were marked with asterisks next to their names. It should cesses that facilitate the identification of waste and the also be noted that some authors explicitly distinguish "vis- identification of ineffective movements. ibility" as a component of "agility". As already noted, the Considering the results of research on the activity of en- mutual overlap between the dimensions of the resistant terprises influencing the nature of supply chains and the chain takes place on many planes. specificity of the lean concept, it can be concluded that Because agility is the basic attribute mentioned in the there is great potential in strengthening supply chains models constituting the resistance of chains, it can be as- based on this concept. These types of chains can be re- sumed that it is their key pillar. At the same time, it can be ferred to as "leresilient" chains, which are chains that assumed that each of the basic types of chains, including build resistance using the principles and tools of a lean green and lean, can support the creation of resistant concept. This can be achieved through an appropriate chains, but these reference models are rare. product and operational policy, which in turn affects the cost-effectiveness of supply chains. This manifests itself RELATIONSHIP OF SUPPLY CHAIN TYPES WITH BUILDING primarily in simplifying processes and reducing unneces- RESISTANT CHAINS – DISCUSSION sary operations that reduce the number of potential dis- Because the influence of agility on resistance is described ruptions and increase the reliability of deliveries in line in the literature on the subject (Table 4), further consider- with the adopted level of service. ations focus on two less described dimensions, neverthe- For example: less agility. − reducing the variety of raw materials in products leads When it comes to lean chains, it can be said that the im- to less complexity in the process of closing the loop of pact on building immunity can have positive and negative supply chains, connotations. On the one hand, in this type of chain, an attempt is made to reduce the level of inventories, to re- − reducing product defectiveness, leading to a reduction duce unnecessary resources, and it is the redundancy of in reverse logistics flows. Attaching great importance to determining the size of demand in each link of the various potentials of enterprises that supports resilience. supply chain minimizes the so-called bullish effect, On the other hand, lean chains eliminate all kinds of waste and there is more organizational discipline. In critical situ- − increasing production efficiency by quickly retooling ations, when it is necessary to survive at lower margins, machines and keeping them in constant readiness fa- the pro-saving policy works. However, it is necessary to cilitates the management of the variability of the size adopt a trade-off principle in terms of the level of inven- of production flows, tories and costs, and the possibility of meeting the needs − simplification of processes and elimination of unnec- in the event of disruptions [59]. essary activities from them, makes it easier to detect A few literature references emphasize the importance of critical points in flows that cannot be seen in the case the lean approach for building resistant chains [31]. It is of redundancy, noted that this can be achieved by such tools as Value − on-time deliveries require alternative routes to be an- Stream Mapping (VSM), standardized work, 5S, Kanban, ticipated in the event of flow congestion, Just-in-time, continuous improvement. Tools such as vis- − work in a stable configuration of cells facilitates com- ual management, pull system, VMI or Poka-Yoke can also munication and joint decision-making regarding the be useful. Among other things, it is proved that Lean Six supply policy and risk-sharing in the event of disrup- Sigma practices have a direct impact on IT management tions in transport corridors and insufficient production and big data analysis, risk management and process man- volume, agement, and this, in turn, increases the disruption readi- − increasing the transparency of production and ware- ness and the possibility of reconfiguration of processes house processes using traffic lights reduces the level and resources in the supply chain, which ultimately affects of disruptions, their resistance [45]. It is also worth mentioning that lean − elimination of problems at the root, reporting im- provements to the bottom-up system minimizes the defectiveness of the systems. 258 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2022, Volume 30, Issue 3 It can be assumed that taking up activities characteristic ily on the positive environmental effects of creating re- of lean chains can be a good introduction to strengthening sistant chains. Nevertheless, there are several issues that the chains by making them more flexible. For example, argue that creating green chains can also strengthen making chains more flexible through resource redundancy them. This is manifested, inter alia, by the fact that: causes redundancy in both essential and redundant activ- − promoting products that contain a low level of hazard- ities. ous substances reduces the level of risks in the supply In regards to green chains, it has been proven, among chain, other things, that the integration of green suppliers has a − reducing the weight of materials and creating prod- positive impact on both the proactive and reactive dimen- ucts that are easy to recycle simplifies processes while sions of supply chain resilience [44]. For example, by opti- closing the loop in the supply chain, mizing routes, sensitive products are protected and CO − investing in environmentally friendly means of emissions are reduced [61]. The positive effects of elimi- transport is usually associated with the purchase of nating distortions in the reverse logistics system, through modern rolling stock, which includes several innova- the use of additive manufacturing (AM) technology, are tive solutions; as well as in the area of safety, and pro- indicated [62]. It is also proposed to create a hybrid of a duces lower failure rates, resistant and green chain by using the SCOR model, be- − the use of green warehouses, which must first un- cause it effectively measures the efficiency of processes dergo an audit, with BREEAM or LEED green certifi- and defines the supply chain in all its aspects, which al- cates are considered to have a higher level of security, lows for comprehensive measurement and evaluation − the implementation of the European Eco-Manage- [63]. ment and Audit Scheme involves the need to demon- Although the level of environmental activities in the strate compliance with legal regulations on environ- chains is still low, there is a strong trend towards their de- mental protection, as well as with the requirements of velopment. This is done both due to the need to protect ISO 14001 and other EMAS requirements, which re- the welfare of the environment, out of necessity imposed duces the likelihood of disruptions in the supply chain, by law, and the desire to create a positive image of the − creating joint pro-environmental projects with partici- chain. Based on the research, it can be concluded that in pants in the supply chain strengthens the level of inte- the initial stages of green chain development, companies gration, which favors building resilience, focus primarily on changes in the attributes of the product − conducting pro-environmental activities is characteris- being moved [10]. This is because such changes can be tic of better organized chains, which is reflected, made at the level of a single link or in cooperation with among others, in GRI reports edited by the leaders of suppliers with which producers usually have more bar- supply chains compiled in the rankings of analytical gaining power. Along with entering a higher level of pro- companies such as Gartner. Preparation of such a re- environmental activities, related undertakings rely on port requires prior monitoring of the processes, which joint investments with suppliers, recipients, or logistics makes them more resistant. operators serving the supply chain. Breaking this type of relationship is unprofitable, because there is a depend- CONCLUSION ency between the participants of the chain related to ex- Based on the research, it can be concluded that there are penditure on technologies, on joint research work with two significant cognitive dissonances: – it is assumed that contractors, with the development of positive image val- resistant chains must be agile, while in practice, hybrids ues provided by ecological operators or trade brands. with a predominance of classic chain attributes, based on Therefore, it can be assumed that the higher the level of pro-saving policies, may also be specific tools characteris- greening in supply chains, the easier it is to build lasting tic of lean chains – in models and research frameworks, it relationships, trust, and thus resilient chains. is sporadically noted that resistance may be supported by However, as with lean chains, the positive effect of green- elements characteristic of lean and green chains, It can be ing the chain is not clear-cut. For example, it is believed concluded that based on each of the analyzed types of the that creating a green and resilient chain can result in supply chain, it is possible to create resistant chains. The higher costs [64]. In addition, in crises, when the profita- mere fact that the studied entities are primarily embed- bility of the company declines, they focus on costs, so pro- ded in traditional, stable, and low-cost chains does not environmental investments, if they are long-term, make it mean that such chains are more difficult to eliminate dis- difficult to maintain liquidity. turbances. The stability of the links has a positive effect Taking into account the results of research on the pro-en- on the resilience of the chains and returning to the start- vironmental activities undertaken in the area of the prod- ing point. On the other hand, organizations that report uct, logistics, and the supply chain, the specificity of this their pro-environmental activities are often enterprises type of chain, it can be concluded that combining pro-en- with a mature, well-established market position that cope vironmental issues with building resilience has a great better in crises and build more durable relationships economic and scientific potential. Chains of this type are through joint green investments with other participants in referred to as “gresilient”, i.e. chains that are green and the supply chain. resistant at the same time. The literature focuses primar- A. MARTYNIAK – Building Resilience Attributes of Supply Chains… 259 [5] B.E. Tukamuhabwa, M. Stevenson, J. Busby and M. Zorzini. At the same time, it has been shown that individual types "Supply chain resilience: definition, review andtheoretical of chains coexist. 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"As- sessing the trade-off between lean and resilience through supply chain risk management”, International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 229-236, 2013. Anna Maryniak ORCID ID: 0000-0002-1344-671X Poznań University of Economics and Business Aleja Niepodległości 10, 61-875 Poznań, Poland e-mail: anna.maryniak@ue.poznan.pl http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Management Systems in Production Engineering de Gruyter

Building Resilience Attributes of Supply Chains from the Perspective of their Types

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de Gruyter
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© 2022 Anna Maryniak, published by Sciendo
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10.2478/mspe-2022-0032
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Abstract

We are currently dealing with disruptions in supply chains. They come from faulty production systems, in poor organization of distribution processes or are related to external factors, often unseen. Consequently, it is neces- sary to build resistant chains. This article discusses this topic in the context of the basic types of supply chains, i.e. agile, lean and green. The aim of the study was to assess the types of chains in which the tested production entities are embedded and check if the proposed models of building resilience take this into account. The reason this should be investigated further, is to indicate relationships in areas that are rarely captured in research models. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in the work. Interviews were conducted in over seventy subjects and a critical analysis of the literature on model of resilient supply chains was performed. As a result of the work undertaken, it can be concluded, inter alia, that in the economic reality, there are hybrid chains in which the characteristics of pro-saving chains prevail. It was also established that the proposed research models for resilient chains should take into account, to greater extent, accents compatible with the nature of the chains occurring an economic reality. It is also necessary to extend their content to include pro-environmental compo- nents. At the same time, it is not unequivocal that the chains with the advantage of agility-related attributes are more resistant than the chains in which the greater concentration is attributed to the attributes of lean or green chains. Determining this requires further research. Key words: agile, disruptions, green, lean, resilient supply chain INTRODUCTION − an indication of the relationships between individual Supply chains are increasingly exposed to various types of chain types and the resistant chain; primarily in the disruptions resulting from the natural, market, political, context of the identified research gaps. climate, economic, and many other causes. It is therefore important that the chains are resilient and robust enough LITERATURE REVIEW to maintain or regain disrupted competitiveness. It is re- In definitions of "resilient supply chains" (RSC), emphasis lated to the types of the supply chain [1]. However, while is placed on the aspect of eliminating disturbances there are studies on green, agile or lean chains, this topic through the preparation of appropriate contingency is rarely directly related to the issue of resilience. This is plans, as well as the ability to respond to them in com- because both the resistance research and the chain hybrid pletely unexpected situations [2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. research are in a very early stage of development. The definitions indicate that resilience supply chains are The study aims to: those which can respond to the negative effects of a dis- − determine what types of activities characterizing a turbance by reverting to the same state or a new, more given type of supply chain dominate in economic prac- desirable state. It is also noted that these are chains in tice, which production and distribution systems can meet cus- tomer expectations promptly. The study focuses primarily − identifying what types of chains are predominant, on the supply chain's ability to reduce the likelihood of a − diagnosing whether the proposed models and re- disruption, which is also emphasized in the definitions. search of resistant chains are adequate to the func- This capacity can be developed in various ways. One such tioning hybrids in the economic reality, way is the skillful creation of supply chain types in terms of their resilience. © 2022 Author(s). This is an open access article licensed under the Creative Commons BY 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) 254 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2022, Volume 30, Issue 3 Therefore, it is assumed that resistant chains are those METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH chains that usually form a hybrid of different chain types Taking into account the scientific achievements related to (for example, agile, green, and lean) and can use the prin- the types of chains, it is easy to notice their mutual influ- ciples and tools that are characteristic of them to mitigate ence and benefits resulting from the coexistence of indi- disruptions in the supply chain. vidual attributes. Furthermore, in the majority of chains, We can talk about the resistance of food chains [7] of the there is most likely no dominant agility because of: blood transport supply chains [8] or resistance in the pro- − the nature of the product being moved (because the cess of drug transport [9]. Each of these chains have their demand for it is relatively predictable, it is not charac- own character. terized by a high level of innovation, it does not have Therefore, it can be a chain in which environmental as- a short life cycle, it is susceptible to positive economies pects are of first and foremost important. So, we are talk- of scale related to production), ing about the so-called green supply chain, i.e., one in − permanent relationships with suppliers or recipients which the design of products and the management of (due to the developed trust, unique competencies, their flow up and down in vertically integrated cells is car- high level of transaction costs in the event of a change ried out with particular emphasis on the need to protect of contractors, the permissible geographic distance of the environment [10]. It can be a lean chain, i.e. a chain the supply or sales markets in terms of costs or logis- based on long-term relationships, mutual trust, in which tics time), one strives to reduce costs by reducing all kinds of waste − the high cost of flexibility that is not feasible for chains [11], as well as an agile chain, i.e. in which the chain reacts embedded in a highly competitive cost-driven envi- quickly both in terms of the quantity and time of delivery ronment. of goods and in terms of adapting the type of product of- Therefore, the hypothesis according to which H2. In the fered to the needs of customers [12]. In the economic re- economic reality, hybrids containing different types of ality, we also find several other chains, such as a closed- supply chains dominate, and the promoted agility is not a loop chain, a balanced, elastic, sensitive, or looped chain, dominant attribute. In the definitions of resistant chains but the considerations focus on the three mentioned and (widely analyzed in the cited references), their basic fea- fundamental ones. ture, which is agility, is primarily emphasized. However, Extensive reviews identify research gaps in agile chains the definition proposals lack concentration on the ele- [13, 14], green chains [15], and lean chains [16], as well as ments related to other basic chain attributes, i.e. the lean their relationships. Among other things, it is shown that and green chains. Both chains are recommended for im- hybrids of lean and green chains improve the efficiency of plementation and several empirical studies indicate their an organization in both financial and environmental di- usefulness in terms of financial, operational, image, and mensions [17, 18]. It is also worth noting that relation- environmental benefits. The literature on this subject is ships of this type should also be considered at a more de- exceptionally rich. In connection with the above, it can be tailed level and assess which of the specific attributes of assumed that in the current proposals of the research the chains affect the organization's performance [19]. This framework, as well as in their more specific forms in the may apply to both the tools used (e.g. lean six sigma) [20] form of models, there are no constructs that would take or specific processes (e.g. supplier selection) [21]. In the into account the above-mentioned threads. Therefore, it broader context, i.e. sustainable chains, it is also noted is assumed that: H1. The proposals for the research that a leaner environment is conducive to the creation of framework for resistant chains primarily propose agility environmental, economic, and social balance [22]. Re- constructs and marginally address the content of lean and views in this area reveal many interesting research direc- green chains. tions [23]. It is emphasized that when lean practices are In the first stage of the research, based on primary data, based on supply chain flexibility, business outcomes are it was diagnosed what types of supply chains function in better [24]. It is worth considering that flexibility has a sig- the studied group of entities. For this purpose, medium nificant impact on the building of agility [25]. and large production companies were examined, which Significantly more studies have begun to address more belong to section C according to the statistical classifica- than one supply chain [26], but their reviews conclude tion. The research was carried out with the use of a ques- that the association with building resilience is extremely tionnaire in the form of an interview. To improve the qual- rare [27], resulting from combining the idea of green and ity of the research, enterprises from the Greater Poland resistant chains, i.e. in a situation where we are dealing Voivodeship were selected to be able to directly reach re- with the so-called gresilient supply chain [28, 29]. Atten- spondents who knew the enterprise in the field of logistics tion is drawn to the importance of selecting green suppli- processes. Ultimately, one hundred and fifteen subjects ers in weakened supply chains caused by unstable flows were examined, but 71 questionnaires qualified for the [30], testing lean practices to improve the desired im- research. Over 40 questionnaires without complete data mune capabilities [31], the impact of agility on chain for- were not accepted. The research tool was constructed mation resistant [32] or the benefits of the coexistence of based on the characteristics of chains appearing in the lit- different types of chains[33]. erature on the subject. Agile, green, and lean chains were considered. In total, 45 test items were assessed using the A. MARTYNIAK – Building Resilience Attributes of Supply Chains… 255 Table 2 5-point Likert Scale (where 1 meant "definitely yes" and 5 Activities undertaken in the area of logistics – "definitely not". Average Type The questions were divided into three groups related to Type of activity values of chain product, logistics, and supply chain. In the second stage 1.9 Lean Limiting unnecessary logistics activities was based on the literature contained in SCOPUS and was Optimizing transportation routes checked to determine which types of chains are most of- 2.0 Lean considering costs ten associated with the subject of resistance. Subse- 2.1 Agility Smoothly adjusting to transportation needs quently, through qualitative research, items on chain Reducing the costs of warehousing 2.2 Lean types rarely described in terms of resistance were re- infrastructure service viewed to identify proposed research models. These mod- 2.3 Lean Replenishing stock acc. to historical state els are supplemented with other exemplary models that 2.3 Agility Educing delivery time, allowing higher costs appear in the literature as a foundation for the identified 2.5 Agility Using “flexible” logistics technologies research gaps. A more detailed methodology in this re- Configurating flexible warehousing 2.7 Agility infrastructure gard is presented later in the study. In the final part of the 2.7 Agility Keeping stocks as unprocessed as possible article, the practical aspect of the conducted research was 2.7 Lean Introducing efficient logistics technologies emphasized, pointing to the rarely described relationships 2.7 Green Use of ecological means of transport of the given types of chains with the shaping of chain re- Minimization of environmental losses sistance. 2.8 Green in the inventory management 2.9 Green Use of green warehouses SUPPLY CHAIN TYPES – RESULTS OF RESEARCH Optimization of trans in terms of CO 3.1 Green To identify the nature of the supply chains, questions emissions were asked in three areas: the product being moved, lo- Advantageously from technologies 3.1 Green gistics, and supply chain. In total, there were fifteen test supporting green logistics questions for each type of chain (lean, agile, green). At the product level, enterprises primarily focus on reducing Enterprises primarily manage the supply chain by looking product defects, dedicating products to specific customer for solutions to problems at the source They try to move segments, and reducing the level of hazardous substances goods according to a strictly defined schedule, but at the (Table 1). same time, when necessary, react quickly to emerging sudden delivery needs (Table 3). Table 1 Table 3 Activities undertaken at the product level Activities undertaken at the supply chain level Average Type Type of activity Average Type values of chain Type of activity values of chain Focusing on the decrease of defective 1.6 Lean 1.9 Lean Eradicating problems “at root” products Movement of goods acc. to a specified Taking into consideration individual 2.2 Lean 2.2 Agility schedule needs of recipients Movement of goods on the basis of quick 2.2 Green Limiting dangerous substances 2.2 Agility response/high availability Producing products with predictable 2.3 Lean 2.6 Agility Reducing inflexible links demand Relatively static configuration of supply Focusing on the increase 2.5 Lean 2.3 Lean chains of production efficiency Relatively dynamic configuration of supply 2.5 Green saving material/energy consumption 2.8 Agility chains 2.6 Green Limiting weight Conducting studies with regard to saving 2.7 Agility Producing innovative products 2.9 Lean solutions in supply chains Recycling alone or by thinrd party 2.9 Green Managing risk in terms of environmental entities 3.1 Green damage 3.1 Lean Limiting the quantity of components Participating in the trainings concerning 3.2 Lean Designing low-cost products 3.2 Lean lean supply chains 3.5 Agility Delaying product configuration Organizing the flow of goods with focus Making an assesment of life cycle of 3.2 Green 3.5 Green on environment protection packagings Creating an environmently friendly supply 3.8 Agility Producing short life-cycle products 3.2 Green chain 4.1 Agility Focusing on fad products Conducting studies concerning agileness 3.3 Agility of supply chains At the level of logistics operations, enterprises reduce un- Participating in the trainings concerning necessary logistic activities, optimize routes in terms of 3.4 Agility agile supply chains costs and try to adapt flexibly to the transport needs of Leading courses of environment protection 3.5 Green contractors (Table 2). for partners in supply chain Expanding knowledge of environment pro- 3.6 Green tection 256 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2022, Volume 30, Issue 3 Taking into account the averages obtained from 45 test Additionally, literature on this subject was searched for in items for the types of supply chains, it can be concluded the records contained in bibliographies of searched arti- that all three dimensions examined, i.e. product, logistics, cles. and chain, scored the lowest for lean chains (2.5 – prod- Because agility is a popular attribute of resilient chains, uct; 2.2 – logistics; 2, 5 – supply chain), so these activities the search was narrowed down to the subject of lean and dominate because 1 was the most important (Figure 1). green activities in the next step. Twenty-eight articles were generated in the area in question which also con- tained the slogan "lean" and 32 with the slogan "green". Most articles linked to these activities do not discuss their effects on building immunity. In addition, some works re- lated to linking resilience with sustainable development [34] or with sustainable supply chains, and not only to the pro-environmental aspects. It turned out that there is a large research gap in this area and only a few of them in- clude models. These models are supplemented with other exemplary models with word “agile” (Table 4). Fig. 1 Type of supply chain Table 4 Taking into account agile and green chains, in the group Models and research frames in the field of resilience supply concerning logistics operations and supply chain manage- chains, which include the basic dimensions of resistance ment, fewer points were indicated when it came to agile associated with a chain that is lean, agile, and green Authors Agility Lean Green chains (respectively: 2.5 compared to 2.7 and 2.9 com- M. Al-Talib et al. 2020* [35] ✓ pared to 3.3). In terms of product policy – 2.7 was indi- S. Bag, S. Gupta and C. Foropon cated in the attributed items of green chains, and 3.3 in ✓ ✓ 2019 [36] relation to agile chains. Based on the data obtained, ana- A. Belhadi et al. 2021 *[37] ✓ lyzing individual 45 attributes, it can be concluded that E. Brandon-Jones et al. 2014 *[38] ✓ supply chains are obvious hybrids in which activities re- H. Carvalho, G. Azevedo lated to lean activities predominate, then agile and, lastly, ✓ and V. Cruz-Machado 2012 *[33] green. As a result of the conducted research, it can be con- M.H. Chowdhury and M. Quaddus cluded that, despite the slogans about the need to oper- 2017 [39] ate dynamically in an agile environment at the chain level, M. Christopher and H. Peck 2004 *[40] ✓ ✓ lean strategies are primarily adopted. This is probably due Y. Cui, H. Idota and M. Ota 2019 *[41] ✓ to the fact that the greatest value comes from long-lasting G.F. Frederico 2021 *[42] ✓ relationships, which lower transaction costs and increase S.K. Gouda and C. Foropon 2018 [43] ✓ trust in business partners. It is especially justified at the L. Ji, C. Yuan, T. Feng and C. Wang 2020 [44] beginning of the chain, because its efficient supply deter- G.S. Hundal et al. 2021 [45] ✓ ✓ mines timely production and sale. It can be assumed that D. Ivanov 2021*[46] ✓ a greater dynamic of activities usually occurs at the exit of N. Johnson, D. Elliott and P. Drake the chain due to the search for new customer segments in 2013 *[47] terms of products and geography. U. Jüttner and S. Maklan 2011 *[48] ✓ C.L. Liu et al. 2018 [49] ✓ RSC MODELS AND THEIR RELATION TO THE TYPES A. Mohammed 2020 [28] ✓ OF THE CHAIN – RESULTS OF RESEARCH M.S. Mubarik et al. 2021 *[50] ✓ The depiction of the issue related to the types of the sup- C.R. Pereira, M. Christopher ply chain is a starting point for broader analyzes in the and A.L. Da Silva 2014 *[51] context of their relationship with resilient chains. When R. Rajesh 2020 [52] ✓ ✓ we consider it on this level, it is reasonable to distinguish Q. Schoen et al. 2018 [4] the pillars of resistant chains. The starting point for sys- C.S. Singh, G. Soni and G.K. Badhotiya 2019* [53] tematization was bibliometric research based on SCOPUS. U. Soni, V. Jain and S. Kumar 2014 *[54] The search path was adopted as literature resources con- V.L.M. Spiegler, M.M. Naim taining the words: resilient/resilience and supply chain in and J. Wikner 2012 [55] the title. A. Spieske and H. Birkel 2021 *[56] In total, 886 items were generated, but some of them , for B.R. Tukamuhabwa et al. 2015 [5] ✓ example, related to cybersecurity or resilience built with M. Umar, M. Wilson and J. Heyl the use of technology 4.0. The number of literature re- ✓ 2021 [6] sources is growing rapidly. In 2021, there were 261, in A. Wieland and C.M. Wallenburg 2020 – 128, and in just the first month of 2022-25. The 2013 [57] largest number of affiliations is from the United States, A. Zavala-Alcívar, M.J. Verdecho ✓ ✓ Great Britain, China, and India. They then searched for and J.J. Alfaro-Saiz 2020 *[58] agility, green, or lean in the titles. A. MARTYNIAK – Building Resilience Attributes of Supply Chains… 257 The list includes models in which: management tools help reduce losses in the procure- − the password "agility" or "flexibility" appeared, usually ment, production, and distribution process and thus af- fect the resilience of the chain [60]. treated as part of "agility", For example, VMI increases the integration between sup- − lean management terms such as "process mapping", plier and manufacturer. On a trust basis, data is shared "Lean SixSigma" or "standardization", with suppliers, so you can control inventory flows more − the password was "green". smoothly. Process Mapping (VSM) enables the identifica- Many models have the slogan "visibility", which can be as- tion of non-value-added activities as well as the identifi- signed to both agile chains (usually about the chain con- cation of tipping points that disrupt the flows. Process vis- figuration, its visibility) and lean chains (usually about sep- ualization allows you to increase the transparency of sup- arate processes – for example, warehouse or production). ply chains, which are the basic pillar of resilient chains. In In model terms, this is not always precisely defined, but it turn, the poka-yoke system allows you to prevent errors can be assumed that in the majority of cases, it is not re- by improving the organization of work. Standardization of lated to lean practices. Models that included these terms work and visualization enables more transparent pro- were marked with asterisks next to their names. It should cesses that facilitate the identification of waste and the also be noted that some authors explicitly distinguish "vis- identification of ineffective movements. ibility" as a component of "agility". As already noted, the Considering the results of research on the activity of en- mutual overlap between the dimensions of the resistant terprises influencing the nature of supply chains and the chain takes place on many planes. specificity of the lean concept, it can be concluded that Because agility is the basic attribute mentioned in the there is great potential in strengthening supply chains models constituting the resistance of chains, it can be as- based on this concept. These types of chains can be re- sumed that it is their key pillar. At the same time, it can be ferred to as "leresilient" chains, which are chains that assumed that each of the basic types of chains, including build resistance using the principles and tools of a lean green and lean, can support the creation of resistant concept. This can be achieved through an appropriate chains, but these reference models are rare. product and operational policy, which in turn affects the cost-effectiveness of supply chains. This manifests itself RELATIONSHIP OF SUPPLY CHAIN TYPES WITH BUILDING primarily in simplifying processes and reducing unneces- RESISTANT CHAINS – DISCUSSION sary operations that reduce the number of potential dis- Because the influence of agility on resistance is described ruptions and increase the reliability of deliveries in line in the literature on the subject (Table 4), further consider- with the adopted level of service. ations focus on two less described dimensions, neverthe- For example: less agility. − reducing the variety of raw materials in products leads When it comes to lean chains, it can be said that the im- to less complexity in the process of closing the loop of pact on building immunity can have positive and negative supply chains, connotations. On the one hand, in this type of chain, an attempt is made to reduce the level of inventories, to re- − reducing product defectiveness, leading to a reduction duce unnecessary resources, and it is the redundancy of in reverse logistics flows. Attaching great importance to determining the size of demand in each link of the various potentials of enterprises that supports resilience. supply chain minimizes the so-called bullish effect, On the other hand, lean chains eliminate all kinds of waste and there is more organizational discipline. In critical situ- − increasing production efficiency by quickly retooling ations, when it is necessary to survive at lower margins, machines and keeping them in constant readiness fa- the pro-saving policy works. However, it is necessary to cilitates the management of the variability of the size adopt a trade-off principle in terms of the level of inven- of production flows, tories and costs, and the possibility of meeting the needs − simplification of processes and elimination of unnec- in the event of disruptions [59]. essary activities from them, makes it easier to detect A few literature references emphasize the importance of critical points in flows that cannot be seen in the case the lean approach for building resistant chains [31]. It is of redundancy, noted that this can be achieved by such tools as Value − on-time deliveries require alternative routes to be an- Stream Mapping (VSM), standardized work, 5S, Kanban, ticipated in the event of flow congestion, Just-in-time, continuous improvement. Tools such as vis- − work in a stable configuration of cells facilitates com- ual management, pull system, VMI or Poka-Yoke can also munication and joint decision-making regarding the be useful. Among other things, it is proved that Lean Six supply policy and risk-sharing in the event of disrup- Sigma practices have a direct impact on IT management tions in transport corridors and insufficient production and big data analysis, risk management and process man- volume, agement, and this, in turn, increases the disruption readi- − increasing the transparency of production and ware- ness and the possibility of reconfiguration of processes house processes using traffic lights reduces the level and resources in the supply chain, which ultimately affects of disruptions, their resistance [45]. It is also worth mentioning that lean − elimination of problems at the root, reporting im- provements to the bottom-up system minimizes the defectiveness of the systems. 258 Management Systems in Production Engineering 2022, Volume 30, Issue 3 It can be assumed that taking up activities characteristic ily on the positive environmental effects of creating re- of lean chains can be a good introduction to strengthening sistant chains. Nevertheless, there are several issues that the chains by making them more flexible. For example, argue that creating green chains can also strengthen making chains more flexible through resource redundancy them. This is manifested, inter alia, by the fact that: causes redundancy in both essential and redundant activ- − promoting products that contain a low level of hazard- ities. ous substances reduces the level of risks in the supply In regards to green chains, it has been proven, among chain, other things, that the integration of green suppliers has a − reducing the weight of materials and creating prod- positive impact on both the proactive and reactive dimen- ucts that are easy to recycle simplifies processes while sions of supply chain resilience [44]. For example, by opti- closing the loop in the supply chain, mizing routes, sensitive products are protected and CO − investing in environmentally friendly means of emissions are reduced [61]. The positive effects of elimi- transport is usually associated with the purchase of nating distortions in the reverse logistics system, through modern rolling stock, which includes several innova- the use of additive manufacturing (AM) technology, are tive solutions; as well as in the area of safety, and pro- indicated [62]. It is also proposed to create a hybrid of a duces lower failure rates, resistant and green chain by using the SCOR model, be- − the use of green warehouses, which must first un- cause it effectively measures the efficiency of processes dergo an audit, with BREEAM or LEED green certifi- and defines the supply chain in all its aspects, which al- cates are considered to have a higher level of security, lows for comprehensive measurement and evaluation − the implementation of the European Eco-Manage- [63]. ment and Audit Scheme involves the need to demon- Although the level of environmental activities in the strate compliance with legal regulations on environ- chains is still low, there is a strong trend towards their de- mental protection, as well as with the requirements of velopment. This is done both due to the need to protect ISO 14001 and other EMAS requirements, which re- the welfare of the environment, out of necessity imposed duces the likelihood of disruptions in the supply chain, by law, and the desire to create a positive image of the − creating joint pro-environmental projects with partici- chain. Based on the research, it can be concluded that in pants in the supply chain strengthens the level of inte- the initial stages of green chain development, companies gration, which favors building resilience, focus primarily on changes in the attributes of the product − conducting pro-environmental activities is characteris- being moved [10]. This is because such changes can be tic of better organized chains, which is reflected, made at the level of a single link or in cooperation with among others, in GRI reports edited by the leaders of suppliers with which producers usually have more bar- supply chains compiled in the rankings of analytical gaining power. Along with entering a higher level of pro- companies such as Gartner. Preparation of such a re- environmental activities, related undertakings rely on port requires prior monitoring of the processes, which joint investments with suppliers, recipients, or logistics makes them more resistant. operators serving the supply chain. Breaking this type of relationship is unprofitable, because there is a depend- CONCLUSION ency between the participants of the chain related to ex- Based on the research, it can be concluded that there are penditure on technologies, on joint research work with two significant cognitive dissonances: – it is assumed that contractors, with the development of positive image val- resistant chains must be agile, while in practice, hybrids ues provided by ecological operators or trade brands. with a predominance of classic chain attributes, based on Therefore, it can be assumed that the higher the level of pro-saving policies, may also be specific tools characteris- greening in supply chains, the easier it is to build lasting tic of lean chains – in models and research frameworks, it relationships, trust, and thus resilient chains. is sporadically noted that resistance may be supported by However, as with lean chains, the positive effect of green- elements characteristic of lean and green chains, It can be ing the chain is not clear-cut. For example, it is believed concluded that based on each of the analyzed types of the that creating a green and resilient chain can result in supply chain, it is possible to create resistant chains. The higher costs [64]. In addition, in crises, when the profita- mere fact that the studied entities are primarily embed- bility of the company declines, they focus on costs, so pro- ded in traditional, stable, and low-cost chains does not environmental investments, if they are long-term, make it mean that such chains are more difficult to eliminate dis- difficult to maintain liquidity. turbances. The stability of the links has a positive effect Taking into account the results of research on the pro-en- on the resilience of the chains and returning to the start- vironmental activities undertaken in the area of the prod- ing point. On the other hand, organizations that report uct, logistics, and the supply chain, the specificity of this their pro-environmental activities are often enterprises type of chain, it can be concluded that combining pro-en- with a mature, well-established market position that cope vironmental issues with building resilience has a great better in crises and build more durable relationships economic and scientific potential. Chains of this type are through joint green investments with other participants in referred to as “gresilient”, i.e. chains that are green and the supply chain. resistant at the same time. The literature focuses primar- A. MARTYNIAK – Building Resilience Attributes of Supply Chains… 259 [5] B.E. Tukamuhabwa, M. Stevenson, J. Busby and M. Zorzini. At the same time, it has been shown that individual types "Supply chain resilience: definition, review andtheoretical of chains coexist. 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"As- sessing the trade-off between lean and resilience through supply chain risk management”, International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 229-236, 2013. Anna Maryniak ORCID ID: 0000-0002-1344-671X Poznań University of Economics and Business Aleja Niepodległości 10, 61-875 Poznań, Poland e-mail: anna.maryniak@ue.poznan.pl

Journal

Management Systems in Production Engineeringde Gruyter

Published: Sep 1, 2022

Keywords: agile; disruptions; green; lean; resilient supply chain

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