Accounting for the effect of temperature on squid growth in nature: from hypothesis to practice

Accounting for the effect of temperature on squid growth in nature: from hypothesis to practice The impact of temperature on cephalopod growth has become a productive area of study. Current knowledge of squid growth owes much to earlier laboratory studies on octopuses and cuttlefishes that revealed rapid temperature-sensitive growth. Advances in laboratory culture of squids eventually revealed the dramatic extent to which rising water temperature accelerates growth rates. This led to proposal and testing of a working hypothesis, the Forsythe Hypothesis, that during periods of gradually warming temperature, monthly cohorts of squids experience warmer conditions and grow faster, and perhaps larger, than older, earlier-hatched cohorts. The advent of statolith increment analysis for determining age in field-caught squids has provided a powerful tool in ground-truthing this hypothesis in nature. This hypothesis, now termed here the Forsythe Effect, has been laboratory- and field-tested over the past 10 years and been strongly supported. Food availability and inherent species-specific physiological limits must also be accounted for in predicting growth. Gaps still exist in our precise understanding of the temperature-induced changes in form and duration of squid growth. Acute and chronic ocean-scale seawater-temperature change events will compel us to look to squids as ‘bioindicators’ of environmental condition and to statoliths as the ‘archives’ of this information. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Marine & Freshwater Research CSIRO Publishing

Accounting for the effect of temperature on squid growth in nature: from hypothesis to practice

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Abstract

The impact of temperature on cephalopod growth has become a productive area of study. Current knowledge of squid growth owes much to earlier laboratory studies on octopuses and cuttlefishes that revealed rapid temperature-sensitive growth. Advances in laboratory culture of squids eventually revealed the dramatic extent to which rising water temperature accelerates growth rates. This led to proposal and testing of a working hypothesis, the Forsythe Hypothesis, that during periods of gradually warming temperature, monthly cohorts of squids experience warmer conditions and grow faster, and perhaps larger, than older, earlier-hatched cohorts. The advent of statolith increment analysis for determining age in field-caught squids has provided a powerful tool in ground-truthing this hypothesis in nature. This hypothesis, now termed here the Forsythe Effect, has been laboratory- and field-tested over the past 10 years and been strongly supported. Food availability and inherent species-specific physiological limits must also be accounted for in predicting growth. Gaps still exist in our precise understanding of the temperature-induced changes in form and duration of squid growth. Acute and chronic ocean-scale seawater-temperature change events will compel us to look to squids as ‘bioindicators’ of environmental condition and to statoliths as the ‘archives’ of this information.

Journal

Marine & Freshwater ResearchCSIRO Publishing

Published: Jun 22, 2004

Keywords: bioindicators, cephalopoda, Forsythe Effect, Forsythe Hypothesis, statolith.

References

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