Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Irrigation Reuse of Pond Effluents in Developing Countries

Irrigation Reuse of Pond Effluents in Developing Countries <jats:p>The large-scale reuse of sewage for irrigation, often without adequate safeguards, is commonplace in many arid and semiarid regions of the world. A UNDP/World Bank global research project has reviewed available epidemiological data and formulated a risk model to evaluate sanitary control options for effluent irrigation. The study concluded that wastewater treatment processes that effectively remove all or most of the pathogens in wastewater provide a major or total reduction in the negative health effects caused by raw wastewater reuse. Furthermore, the study found the recommended criteria for effective wastewater treatment for irrigation reuse in developing countries to be, in order of priority: (1) maximum removal of helminths; (2) effective reduction in bacterial and viral pathogens; and (3) freedom from odor and appearance nuisances (i.e., reduction of BOD). Multicell stabilization ponds are suited to meet all three criteria. Research sponsored by the UNDP/World Bank project has shown that well-designed and operated multicell stabilization ponds achieve virtually total removal of helminths and a greater than 99.99 percent reduction of enteric bacteria. Waste stabilization ponds can produce an odor-free effluent rich in nutrients and attractive for agricultural use. Most suitable in hot developing countries, ponds are a particularly robust, flexible, and almost fail-safe treatment system having low construction and operation costs. Research is now focusing on management and policy issues required to effectively achieve controlled irrigation reuse.</jats:p> http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Water Science and Technology CrossRef

Irrigation Reuse of Pond Effluents in Developing Countries

Water Science and Technology , Volume 19 (12): 289-297 – Dec 1, 1987

Irrigation Reuse of Pond Effluents in Developing Countries


Abstract

<jats:p>The large-scale reuse of sewage for irrigation, often without adequate safeguards, is commonplace in many arid and semiarid regions of the world. A UNDP/World Bank global research project has reviewed available epidemiological data and formulated a risk model to evaluate sanitary control options for effluent irrigation. The study concluded that wastewater treatment processes that effectively remove all or most of the pathogens in wastewater provide a major or total reduction in the negative health effects caused by raw wastewater reuse. Furthermore, the study found the recommended criteria for effective wastewater treatment for irrigation reuse in developing countries to be, in order of priority: (1) maximum removal of helminths; (2) effective reduction in bacterial and viral pathogens; and (3) freedom from odor and appearance nuisances (i.e., reduction of BOD). Multicell stabilization ponds are suited to meet all three criteria. Research sponsored by the UNDP/World Bank project has shown that well-designed and operated multicell stabilization ponds achieve virtually total removal of helminths and a greater than 99.99 percent reduction of enteric bacteria. Waste stabilization ponds can produce an odor-free effluent rich in nutrients and attractive for agricultural use. Most suitable in hot developing countries, ponds are a particularly robust, flexible, and almost fail-safe treatment system having low construction and operation costs. Research is now focusing on management and policy issues required to effectively achieve controlled irrigation reuse.</jats:p>

Loading next page...
 
/lp/crossref/irrigation-reuse-of-pond-effluents-in-developing-countries-fawcYmWhJQ

References

References for this paper are not available at this time. We will be adding them shortly, thank you for your patience.

Publisher
CrossRef
ISSN
0273-1223
DOI
10.2166/wst.1987.0159
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

<jats:p>The large-scale reuse of sewage for irrigation, often without adequate safeguards, is commonplace in many arid and semiarid regions of the world. A UNDP/World Bank global research project has reviewed available epidemiological data and formulated a risk model to evaluate sanitary control options for effluent irrigation. The study concluded that wastewater treatment processes that effectively remove all or most of the pathogens in wastewater provide a major or total reduction in the negative health effects caused by raw wastewater reuse. Furthermore, the study found the recommended criteria for effective wastewater treatment for irrigation reuse in developing countries to be, in order of priority: (1) maximum removal of helminths; (2) effective reduction in bacterial and viral pathogens; and (3) freedom from odor and appearance nuisances (i.e., reduction of BOD). Multicell stabilization ponds are suited to meet all three criteria. Research sponsored by the UNDP/World Bank project has shown that well-designed and operated multicell stabilization ponds achieve virtually total removal of helminths and a greater than 99.99 percent reduction of enteric bacteria. Waste stabilization ponds can produce an odor-free effluent rich in nutrients and attractive for agricultural use. Most suitable in hot developing countries, ponds are a particularly robust, flexible, and almost fail-safe treatment system having low construction and operation costs. Research is now focusing on management and policy issues required to effectively achieve controlled irrigation reuse.</jats:p>

Journal

Water Science and TechnologyCrossRef

Published: Dec 1, 1987

There are no references for this article.