WOLF PACK TERRITORY MARKING IN THE BIA OWIE Ç ZA PRIMEVAL FOREST (POLAND) by K. ZUB 1,2) , J. THEUERKAUF 1,3,4) , W. J Î EDRZEJEWSKI 1) , B. J Î EDRZEJEWSKA 1) , K. SCHMIDT 1) and R. KOWALCZYK 1,5) ( 1 Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, 17-230 Biaowie Ç za, Poland; 3 Wildlife Biology and Management Unit, Department of Ecosystem and Landscape Management, Munich University of Technical Sciences, 85354 Freising, Germany; 4 Current address: International Centre of Ecology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Bezka 24, 38-700 Ustrzyki Dolne, Poland) (Acc. 3-IV-2003) Summary We analysed data on territory marking with urine, scats, and ground scratching by wolves ( Canis lupus ) belonging to four packs in the Biaowie Ç za Primeval Forest, Poland. The aims were to determine: (1) seasonal variation in the marking rates, (2) signi cance of various kinds of marking in territory demarcation, and (3) relationship between spatial distribution of wolves’ marking and their use of territory. Continuous radio-tracking and subsequent snow tracking of the collared wolves were the main methods. Deposition rates of scats showed little variation in time and space, whereas rates of urine marking and ground scratching showed large
Behaviour – Brill
Published: Jan 1, 2003
Keywords: URINE MARKING; CONSTRAINS; FOREST; BIALOWIEZA; CANIS LUPUS; GROUND SCRATCHING; TERRITORY; ECONOMIC; 'HOT-SPOTS' MODEL.
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