VARIATION IN SCHOOLING AND AGGRESSION AMONGST GUPPY (POECILIA RETICULATA) POPULATIONS IN TRINIDAD by ANNE E. MAGURRAN and BENONI H. SEGHERS1) (Animal Behaviour Research Group, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, U.K.) (With 7 Figures) (Acc. 20-V-1991) Introduction Schooling behaviour offers fish an effective defence against many types of predators (MAGURRAN, 1990). The enhanced vigilance of larger groups means that approaching predators are more readily detected while infor- mation transfer amongst school members ensures that all individuals rapidly become aware of impending danger (MAGURRAN & HIGHAM, 1988). If an attack is escalated, the confusion effect, in conjunction with a range of escape tactics, helps reduce the predator's chance of success (NEILL & CULLEN, 1974). Many of these responses rely on uniformity of morphology and behaviour. For example, the confusion effect is most successful when all group members are of similar size (THEODARKIS, 1989) and appearance (OHGUCHI, 1981; LANDEAU & TERBORGH, 1986) while highly organized manoeuvres, such as the fountain effect and the flash expansion, depend on coordinated behaviour. There is also some evidence that, under certain conditions, pairs of sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus (MILINSKI, 1987; MILINSKI et al., 1990a, 1990b) or guppies Poecilia reticulata
Behaviour – Brill
Published: Jan 1, 1991
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