VARIABILITY IN THE RESPONSES OF BLACK-BILLED MAGPIES TO NATURAL PREDATORS by DEBORAH BUITRON1) (Bell Museum of Natural History, Department of Ecology & Behavioral Biology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 U.S.A.) (With 5 Figures) (Acc. 12-V-1983) Introduction In many species parental care includes defending offspring from predators. Anti-predator behavior may involve giving an alarm call, per- forming a distraction display that entices the predator away from the nest or young, or actually chasing and attacking the predator. By defending their young, parents may risk injury and death. At the very least, in the case of distraction displays and chasing, the parents will use time and energy that could otherwise be spent in activities such as foraging and preparing for future offspring. As a result, there should be selection for a level of defense that is a compromise between the survival of an existing brood and that of the adults and future broods (TRIVERS, 1972, 1974). In some species, parents behave differently depending on the type of predator and the relative risk to themselves and their offspring (HINDE, 1952; KRUUK, 1964; CURIO, 1975; VEEN, 1977; GREIG-SMITH, 1980). Natural selection theory predicts that parents should increase the risks, time, and
Behaviour – Brill
Published: Jan 1, 1983
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