© Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2011 DOI: 10.1163/156920811X575523 Journal of Women of the Middle East and the Islamic World 9 (2011) 26–48 brill.nl/hawwa Translating Gender Justice in Southeast Asia: Situated Ethics, NGOs, and Bio-Welfare Aihwa Ong University of California, Berkeley firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract This essay shows that regardless of existing laws and prominent female leaders, gender jus- tice as a value must be attuned to the situated ethics of the majority populations in order to gain social legitimacy. Since the 1980s, NGO movements for reformasi , or reform, and democrasi have intervened on women’s behalf in a variety of areas—Muslim feminism, political violence, and the abuse of maids, sex workers, and migrants. They have had to modify rights-based strategies in accordance with religious, legal, and economic conditions. Universalizing gender rights articulate situated fields of power that contest or qualify imposed regulatory systems of humanitarian values. It is important to acknowledge that gender justice intervenes in webs of power that can thwart its regulation as well as form new alliances of solidarity. Gender justice and rights cannot be unilaterally imposed, but are transmitted and translated through negotiations with situated religious and citizenship norms. In postcolonial milieus, ideals of gender justice
Hawwa – Brill
Published: Jan 1, 2011
Keywords: assemblage; moral economy; Southeast Asia; Situated ethics; rights-based approaches; Islam
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