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TOOLS AND BRAINS IN BIRDS

TOOLS AND BRAINS IN BIRDS TOOLS AND BRAINS IN BIRDS by LOUIS LEFEBVRE 1) , NEKTARIA NICOLAKAKIS and DENIS BOIRE 2,3,4) ( 1 Department of Biology, McGill University and 2 Département des Sciences Biologiques, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada) (Acc. 14-V-2002) Summary Tools are traditionally deŽ ned as objects that are used as an extension of the body and held directly in the hand or mouth. By these standards, a vulture breaking an egg by hitting it with a stone uses a tool, but a gull dropping an egg on a rock does not. This distinction between true and borderline (or proto-tool) cases has been criticized for its arbitrariness and anthropocentrism. We show here that relative size of the neostriatum and whole brain distinguish the true and borderline categories in birds using tools to obtain food or water. From two sources, the specialized literature on tools and an innovation data base gathered in the short note sections of 68 journals in 7 areas of the world, we collected 39 true ( e.g . use of probes, hammers, sponges, scoops) and 86 borderline ( e.g . bait Ž shing, battering and dropping on anvils, holding with wedges and skewers) cases of tool use http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Behaviour Brill

TOOLS AND BRAINS IN BIRDS

Behaviour , Volume 139 (7): 939 – Jan 1, 2002

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Publisher
Brill
Copyright
© 2002 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands
ISSN
0005-7959
eISSN
1568-539X
DOI
10.1163/156853902320387918
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

TOOLS AND BRAINS IN BIRDS by LOUIS LEFEBVRE 1) , NEKTARIA NICOLAKAKIS and DENIS BOIRE 2,3,4) ( 1 Department of Biology, McGill University and 2 Département des Sciences Biologiques, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada) (Acc. 14-V-2002) Summary Tools are traditionally deŽ ned as objects that are used as an extension of the body and held directly in the hand or mouth. By these standards, a vulture breaking an egg by hitting it with a stone uses a tool, but a gull dropping an egg on a rock does not. This distinction between true and borderline (or proto-tool) cases has been criticized for its arbitrariness and anthropocentrism. We show here that relative size of the neostriatum and whole brain distinguish the true and borderline categories in birds using tools to obtain food or water. From two sources, the specialized literature on tools and an innovation data base gathered in the short note sections of 68 journals in 7 areas of the world, we collected 39 true ( e.g . use of probes, hammers, sponges, scoops) and 86 borderline ( e.g . bait Ž shing, battering and dropping on anvils, holding with wedges and skewers) cases of tool use

Journal

BehaviourBrill

Published: Jan 1, 2002

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