369 The Nordic Welfare Model: Moving from Welfare 'From Above' Towards a System Based on Rights? ALLAN ROSAS Department of Law and Institute for Human Rights, Abo Akademi University, Turku, Finland The Nordic welfare model is in a financial and ideological flux. Do we have the means to keep it up, given the budget deficits especially in Sweden and Finland? Do we want to keep it up, given the fashionable insistence on deregulation and individual choice? It seems useful at the outset to distinguish between four models of welfare systems and social protection in a Nordic and Western European setting: (1) Services such as education, health care and social security are mainly based on market forces, private property and individual choice. Services are charged and insurance is optional. Welfare is based on charity. The public sector limits itself to defence, law and order and certain infras- tructures. This model, which has not been taken to its extreme in any country, could be called the 'Reagan-Thatcher' model. (2) Services are provided by a mix of private, communitarian and public arrangements, including churches. Family values, solidarity and indi- vidual responsibility are emphasized. There are elements of this model especially in
Nordic Journal of International Law – Brill
Published: Jan 1, 1995
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