© Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2009 DOI: 10.1163/008467209X12524724282032 Archive for the Psychology of Religion 31 (2009) 357-374 brill.nl/arp Th e Impact of Positive and Negative Spiritual Experiences on Distress and the Moderating Role of Mindfulness Niko Kohls a),c) , Harald Walach b),c) and George Lewith d) a) Generation Research Program, Human Science Centre Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany E-mail: email@example.com b) Division of Psychology, School of Social Sciences, Th e University of Northampton, Northampton NNZ 7AL, UK c) Brain, Mind and Healing Program, Samueli Institute, Alexandria, VA, USA d) Th e University of Southampton, Community Clinical Sciences, UK Received: 8 September 2008; accepted: 9 October 2008 Summary Both spiritual experiences and mindfulness as a psychological variable have been identiﬁ ed as components of wellbeing and health. As there is uncertainty about their relationship, we have investigated the impact of spiritual experiences and mindfulness as well as their interaction on distress in chronically ill patients. Th e unidimensional Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES), the multidimensional Exceptional Experiences Questionnaire (EEQ), the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI), and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) were administered to 109 chronically ill patients. Fifty-eight patients (53%) reported regular and frequent spiritual or contemplative practice from diﬀ
Archive for the Psychology of Religion – Brill
Published: Jan 1, 2009
Keywords: DISTRESS; MINDFULNESS; SPIRITUALITY; SPIRITUAL EXPERIENCES
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