683 The Establishment of the International Tribunal for Rwanda JAANA KARHILO * SIPRI (Stockholm, International Peace Research Institute), Frösunda. S-171 53 Solna, Sweden 1. Introduction The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTFY), set up in 1993, is unique in modem history. It is the first international criminal tribunal ever to be established by the United Nations (UN). Its only immedi- ate predecessors, the international military tribunals at Nuremberg and Tokyo were created in very different circumstances. Though seminal in introducing the crimes against peace and humanity and strengthening the principle of individual responsibility for war crimes, they represented the victors' jus- tice. When the ICTFY was established, the fighting continued in the former Yugoslavia, and the offences which the Tribunal was mandated to prosecute continued to be perpetrated on a large scale. Only a year after the creation of the new international tribunal, extensive massacres in Rwanda resulted in the deaths of up to a million people in the span of three months. The systematic campaign to exterminate the Tutsi ethnic group amounts to genocide in the determination of all investigations conducted under UN auspices. In the aftermath of the massacres, over 2 mil- lion Rwandans
Nordic Journal of International Law – Brill
Published: Jan 1, 1995
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