THE EFFECTS OF ACUTE CROWDING ON AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR OF JAPANESE MONKEYS by B. K. ALEXANDER 1) and E. M. ROTH (Oregon Regional Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon, and University of Oregon Medical School, Portland, Oregon, U.S.A.) (With 3 Figures) (Ree. 15-VII-1970) . INTRODUCTION Crowding generally increases aggressive behavior in man (RUSSELL & RUSSELL, 1968) and in other mammals (e.g. CALHOUN, 1962; CHRISTIAN, LLOYD & DAVIS, 1965). In spite of the theoretical and practical importance of understanding the relationship between space and aggression, it has proved difficult to study this relationship carefully in man and other primates because numerous variables can be confounded with space restrictions. In human beings crowding is usually confounded with malnutrition, disease, alienation, racial origin, and nationality. Furthermore, response to the physical environ- ment is very much determined by culture (HALL, 1966). In comparisons of primate troops in habitats which are more or less crowded, such as urban -,s rural rhesus monkeys (SINGH, ig6g; I968 ) and free-living vs captive chimpanzees (WILSON & WILSON, 1968) the environments differ in numerous ways unrelated to space. Also, genetic differences may exist, within species, especially when differing habitats have been occupied for long periods of time. Thus, minor
Behaviour – Brill
Published: Jan 1, 1971
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