241 The EC Directive on Port State Control in Context The European Union General Towards the end of the 1970s the increasing number of substandard ships led to growing concern about environmental and safety aspects in international shipping. This increase could partly but not wholly be attributed to the flagging out by European and North American shipowners in favour of flags of convenience. However, the inability of the authorities of these flags of convenience to establish competent administrations undoubtedly contributed to the increase in the number of substandard ships. Other reasons can be mentioned as well, for example the character of the shipping industry which had changed dramatically since World War II. The following citation is illustrative of this latter aspect: "Today, ships are registered in one country, manned by multinational crews often rounded up by obscure agents in far off outposts, and operated by management companies in other countries. The owner has no real link with the country of origin and the beneficial ownership is most likely held by a banking consortium whose chief interest is the investment return. This is an environment where substandard ships thrive."1 1 Following the adoption of several regulatory Conventions, such as
The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law – Brill
Published: Jan 1, 1996
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera