Supportive and tolerant relationships among male Tibetan macaques at Huangshan, China Carol M. Berman 1,2,3) , Consuel Ionica 1,4) & Jinhua Li 5) ( 1 Department of Anthropology and 2 Graduate Program in Evolution, Ecology and Behavior, State University of New York at Buffalo, 14261 USA; 4 Laboratory of Comparative Ethology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Poolesville, MD, USA; 5 School of Life Sciences, Anhui University, Hefei, Anhui Province, China 230039) (Accepted: 19 March 2007) Summary Tibetan macaque males at Huangshan ( Macaca thibetana huangshanensis ) display highly skewed mating success and highly asymmetric patterns of aggression, but also high levels of tolerance. We examined affiliation, tolerance and agonistic support to test the hypothesis that increased tolerance in otherwise despotic males may occur when high-ranking males require support from other males to prevent (1) potentially destabilizing revolutionary coalitions against them, or (2) young adult males from usurping the alpha position. Several predictions of the first hypothesis were supported: Support was unrelated to kinship or affiliation and was generally conservative, serving to reinforce the current hierarchy. Nevertheless revolutionary coalitions posed a threat, particularly to alpha males. High-ranking males displayed tolerance in the form of co-feeding toward
Behaviour – Brill
Published: Jan 1, 2007
Keywords: AGONISTIC SUPPORT; RECIPROCITY; MACACA THIBETANA; MALE TOLERANCE; MALE COOPERATION
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