Middle East Law and Governance 1 (2009) 3–37 © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2009 DOI 10.1163/187633708X339444 www.brill.nl/melg 1) I wish to thank the MacMillan Center for International and Area Studies at Yale University, the United States Institute of Peace, and the American Center for Oriental Research (Amman, Jordan) for generous support of this research. For their helpful comments and insights, I also thank Anver Emon, Amaney Jamal, Marcus Kurtz, Lily Tsai, and the participants of the Middle East Legal Studies Seminar at Yale University, the Comparative Politics Workshop at Columbia University, the Near East Studies Colloquium Series at Princeton University, the Comparative Politics Workshop at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, the Comparative Politics Works-in-Progress Seminar at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the Seminar on Islam and Political Regimes at the University of California–Los Angeles. 2) President George W. Bush, speaking to the National Endowment for Democracy for its 20th anniversary on November 6, 2003, www.ned.org/events/anniversary/20thAniv-Bush.html. 3) Steven Levitsky and Lucan Way, “Autocracy by Democratic Rules: Th e Dynamics of Competitive Authoritarianism in the post–Cold War Era” (revised version of paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, August 28–31, 2002), 5,
Middle East Law and Governance – Brill
Published: Jan 1, 2009
Keywords: ELECTORAL RULES; ELECTIONS; POLITICAL PARTICIPATION; INSTITUTIONS
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