PREY SIZE SELECTION BY LAPWINGS IN LAPWING/GULL ASSOCIATIONS by C. J. BARNARD and HILARY STEPHENS') (Animal Behaviour Research Group, Department of Zoology, University of Nottingham, England) (With 7 Figures) (Acc. 19-IX-1980) INTRODUCTION Birds which feed in flocks appear to benefit in a number of ways. In particular they may tend to feed on richer food supplies (KREBS, 1974; Goss-CUSTARD, 1970; BARNARD, 1980a), cash in on local information about the type and whereabouts of food (KREBS et al., 1972; KREBS,1973; RUBENSTEIN et al., 1977; I?AZARUS, 1979a; BARNARD & SIBLY, in press), devote more time to feeding (POWELL, 1974; CARACO, 1979a, b; BAR- NARD, 1980b) and/or gain protection from predators (PAGE & WHITACRE, 1975; KENWARD, 1978; LAZARUS, 1979b; BARNARD, 1979, 1980; CARACO et al., 1980). In many cases these benefits arise from changes in the way birds allocate time to each of the activities they perform during feeding so that more time can be spent looking for or processing food. In this paper we examine another way in which being in a flock may increase a bird's feeding efficiency as a result of changes in time budgeting. It is now well known that predators can select prey so as to
Behaviour – Brill
Published: Jan 1, 1981
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