© Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2010 JEGH 3.2 Also available online – brill.nl/jegh DOI: 10.1163/187416610X541709 NEW DATE FOR THE SECOND PERSIAN CONQUEST, END OF PHARAONIC AND MANETHONIAN EGYPT: 340/39 B.C.E. Leo Depuydt Brown University Abstract Artaxerxes III’s conquest of Egypt signified the end of Egypt of the Pharaohs. For more than half a century now, the event has been dated to either 343 B.C.E. or 342 B.C.E. Detailed calibrations focus on the winter of 343/42 B.C.E., espe- cially early 342 B.C.E. Yet, there is no evidence whatsoever for this date. The presumed evidence has escaped scrutiny in Egyptology because it involves subtle reasoning about the supposed purport of Classical Greek sources whose chronol- ogy is uncertain or whose authenticity is in doubt. The surviving sources instead unambiguously point to an interval lasting from November of 340 B.C.E. to the summer of 339 B.C.E. as the time when the conquest most probably took place. This date can be styled as 340/39 B.C.E. The slash signifies a time interval shorter than two full years – in this case also shorter than a year – that spans two Julian years. The conquest is therefore dated here to roughly three years later
Journal of Egyptian History – Brill
Published: Jan 1, 2010
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