THOMAS S. NOONAN (Twin Cities, Minn., U.S.A.) Monetary Circulation in Early Medieval Rus': A Study of Volga Bulgar Dirham Finds Ever since the early nineteenth century, when finds and hoards of dirhams were first published in Russia, there has been a tendency for most scholars to discuss these dirhams primarily in terms of Russia's eastern trade. Thus, it was not surprising that a fairly recent article by V. V. Kropotkin on finds of Volga Bulgar dirhams in European Russia and the southeastern Baltic focused upon these dirhams as evidence of Rus' trade with the Volga Bulgars in the tenth century.1 It is not our intention here to quarrel with the assumption that coin finds are the product of commerce. Indeed, we are willing to accept this thesis at least as it concerns the tens of thousands of Muslim dirhams which appeared throughout Eastern Europe in the ninth and tenth centuries. We should not forget, however, that the trade of Eastern Europe with the Orient during these two centuries is abundantly documented by numerous Arabic and Persian sources.2 In this sense, the numismatic data only tend to confirm what we already know from other sources. On the other hand,
Russian History – Brill
Published: Jan 1, 1980
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