Journeys toward an Authentic Self Pete Porter Eastern Washington University firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract Th is review explores the central themes and species ideology of Bolt, Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa , and Beverly Hills Chihuahua . All suggest incremental changes in human attitudes toward ani- mals but all strongly conﬁ rm the mainstream view of animals as domestic companions and as models of human society. Whatever the limitations of their imagining of nonhuman existence, however, these ﬁ lms promise to raise awareness of some challenges faced by nonhuman animals in a human world. Keywords animal, animation, domestication, nonhuman, species ideology Bolt . 2008. Walt Disney Animation. Directed by Byron Howard and Chris Williams; Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa . 2008. Dreamworks Animation. Directed by Eric Dar- nell and Tom McGrath; Beverly Hills Chihuahua . 2008. Walt Disney Pictures. Directed by Raja Gosnell. Bolt; Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa (M2) ; and Beverly Hills Chihuahua (BHC) share the cen- tral themes of self-knowledge and community, with corresponding movements toward home and domesticity. In narrative terms, each oﬀ ers a variation on Th e Incredible Journey (Burnford, 1961) and its adventure of self-discovery by a makeshift animal team of tempo- rary orphans that learns
Society & Animals – Brill
Published: Jan 1, 2009
Keywords: DOMESTICATION; NONHUMAN; SPECIES IDEOLOGY; ANIMATION; ANIMAL
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