1 Introduction Late nineteenth-century Egypt was a key site for the development of international lawyers and international law. It was a site of experiment with forms of imperial law suited to informal empire. The work of Nubar Pasha during the 1860s and 1870s to establish the Mixed Tribunals was a remarkable early experiment in international institution-building. 1 Because Egypt was not subject to the direct and explicit sovereignty of either the Ottoman or the British empires, its multinational mixed courts tended to attract foreign legal workers pursuing careers outside of imperial government. As a result, Egypt became a training ground for international lawyers and a place where they could enrich themselves early in their careers. It was also a labour market entrepot: when the King of Siam needed a legal advisor in the 1890s, for example, he looked to Harvard and to Cairo. 2 If turn-of-the-century Egypt was a hotspot for foreign-born lawyers, the legal profession was equally important for Arabic-speaking local subjects. Law was one of the classic professions for members of the effendi class, ‘subject[s] form[ed] on the nonmetropolitan side yet between and betwixt the West and the East’, who dominated the literary and political output
Journal of the History of International Law / Revue d'histoire du droit international – Brill
Published: Oct 30, 2016
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