Human friendship favours cooperation in the Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma Bonaventura Majolo 1) , Kaye Ames , Rachel Brumpton , Rebecca Garratt , Kate Hall & Natasha Wilson (Research Centre for Comparative Cognition, Department of Psychology, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, LN6 7TS, UK) (Accepted: 22 September 2006) Summary In the last decades, many studies have attempted to analyse the factors that may favour the evolution of cooperation. Among unrelated individuals, cooperation is expected to oc- cur when partners exchange altruistic acts one another (i.e., reciprocity) or when the donor of an altruistic act may obtain secondary benefits from the act (e.g., increased reputation). The iterated prisoner’s dilemma (IPD) is frequently used to analyse cooperation between two players. In this game, cooperation is constantly at risk of exploitation. Therefore, previous knowledge of the other player’s attitude towards cooperation may positively affect an indi- vidual’s decision to cooperate during the game. In various social species (including humans), group members may form friendly relationships that reduce uncertainty about the partner re- sponse and increase the mutual exchange of benefits. In light of this, we analysed whether humans cooperate more when playing an IPD with a friend than with a stranger.
Behaviour – Brill
Published: Jan 1, 2006
Keywords: EXPLOITATION; DEFECTION; COOPERATION; ALTRUISM; FRIENDSHIP; PRISONER'S DILEMMA; RECIPROCITY
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