Russian expansion toward southern Siberia in the seventeenth century faced strong resistance by the peoples living in the forest-steppe zone. Turkic- and Mongolic-speaking nomadic people of the Inner Asian steppe zone, who controlled the area before the Muscovites, were not willing to lose their subjects to the Tsar, for economic reasons. Weakened by internecine strife, Khalkha nobilities of Khuvsgul-Sayan region were not strong enough to oppose the Russian state successfully. In this paper I describe the situation of Geleg Noyan Qutuγtu. This belligerent high-ranking lama from the Qotoγoyid noble family was an active player in the local scene of Russian–Mongolian relations.
Inner Asia – Brill
Published: Aug 19, 2014
Keywords: Russian expansion; Khalkha; Darkhad Mongols; dual-tribute system; frontier relations