© Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2009 DOI 10.1163/187631209X458349 Insect Systematics & Evolution 40 (2009) 229–252 brill.nl/ise Frena and druckknopf: a synopsis of two fore wing-to-body coupling mechanisms in Heteropterodea (Hemiptera) Christiane Weirauch a, * and Gerry Cassis b a Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA b School of Biological, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia *Corresponding author, e-mail: email@example.com Abstract Two wing-to-body fastening structures are documented using scanning electron microscopy for 20 exemplar species across the Heteropterodea and 3 species of Auchenorrhyncha. Frenae, holding devices interlocking the costal margin of the fore wing with the margin of the mesoscutellum, occur in representa- tives of all infraorders of Heteroptera with the exception of Gerromorpha. Frenae were also found in Cicadomorpha and Fulgoromorpha (Auchenorrhyncha), but they are absent in Coleorrhyncha. A knob- shaped “druckknopf ”, covered with tile-like microtrichia on the mesepimeron and interlocking the hind margin of the fore wing with the mesothorax, occurs in Cimicomorpha, Leptopodomorpha and Coreidae (Pentatomomorpha) among Panheteroptera. A ridge or elevation beset with tile-like microtrichia is present in Dipsocoridae and Schizopteridae among Dipsocoromorpha, Nepomorpha and the remaining Pentato- momorpha examined among Panheteroptera, but
Insect Systematics & Evolution – Brill
Published: Jan 1, 2009
Keywords: COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGY; SYSTEMATICS; WING COUPLING; HETEROPTERA; THORAX
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