Hans-Jörg Albrecht 1 Fortress Europe? – Controlling Illegal Immigration 1. INTRODUCTION: IMMIGRATION IN EUROPE – PERSPECTIVES AND 1. CONCEPTS The concept of a ‘Fortress’ Europe carries both, critical connotations as well as a positively evaluated meaning. Allegations of establishing a fortress Europe to the disadvantage of the third and developing world, refugees, asylum seekers, the poor and finally with detrimental effects for the very basic values of open and democratic societies based on the rule of law and respect for human rights, have been voiced since the eighties when the first signs of a common European Union immigration policy became visible. 2 These voices – demanding for ‘politics, not policing’ – grew louder during the nineties and they reflect ultimately a mixture of concerns which are raised by partisans of human rights as well as by critics of alleged negative effects of globalization. On the other hand, European police forces and ministries of home affairs called for tighter border controls and convincing concepts that cut down the number of immigrants to the European Union member countries and perceived immense risks of uncontrolled immigration. 3 The media and a wide range of political parties throughout Europe also participate in
European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice – Brill
Published: Jan 1, 2002
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