Applied Herpetology 6 (2009) 211–226 www.brill.nl/ah Evaluating methods for sampling stream salamanders across multiple observers and habitat types David Marsh Department of Biology, Washington and Lee University, Lexington, VA 24450, USA. E-mail: email@example.com Abstract While techniques for sampling pond-breeding amphibians are relatively well-established, comparable meth- ods for stream amphibians are still being developed. Uncertainty about sampling techniques is particularly acute for approaches that involve multiple observers. I evaluated three techniques for sampling stream sala- manders with multiple observers—time-constrained surveys, leaf-litter bags, and controlled-cobble added to the stream. I tested for differences among techniques, differences among habitats, and technique by habitat interactions. I also asked whether coefficients of variation across observers and sample dates differed among methods and habitats. For all species and life-stages, time-constrained surveys produced higher counts of stream salamanders and greater richness estimates than did leaf-litter bags or controlled-cobble surveys. However, interactions between techniques and habitat were never significant, indicating that all the methods detected similar patterns in counts among stream habitats. Coefficients of variation in single-species counts tended to be higher for time-constrained surveys, whereas CVs for species richness were significantly lower for time-constrained surveys. Overall, these results suggest that: (1) time-constrained surveys for stream
Applied Herpetology – Brill
Published: Jan 1, 2009
Keywords: SURVEY; GYRINOPHILUS; DESMOGNATHUS; MONITORING; POPULATION INDEX; LOTIC; EURYCEA; AMPHIBIANS; TECHNIQUES
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