© Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2011 DOI: 10.1163/187119111X585534 The Hague Journal of Diplomacy 6 (2011) 299-317 brill.nl/hjd European Responses to US Diplomacy: ‘Special Relationships’, Transatlantic Governance and World Order Michael Smith Department of Politics, History and International Relations, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK M.H.Smith@lboro.ac.uk Received: 4 January 2011; revised; 23 May 2011; accepted: 16 June 2011 Summary This article explores the contrasting diplomacies of the United States and the European Union, drawing attention to the characteristics of the United States as a ‘warrior state’ and the European Union as a form of ‘trading state’ in which a complex and hybrid form of diplomacy is produced through the interplay of European and national foreign policies. It then pursues the argument that the interplay of US and EU diplomacies has generated an evolving EU-US diplomatic system, which in itself is hybrid and multi- dimensional. The article explores the context within which the EU-US diplomatic system has evolved and is evolving, and proposes three key patterns of diplomatic relations as the core of the system: ‘special relationships’ reﬂecting speciﬁc ties between the United States and key EU member states; ‘transatlantic governance’ reﬂecting the growth of transatlantic transactions and demands for
The Hague Journal of Diplomacy – Brill
Published: Jan 1, 2011
Keywords: diplomacy; transatlantic governance; special relationships; European Union (EU); world order; United States (US)
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