Journal of Religion in Europe 1 (2008) 133–155 © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2008 DOI 10.1163/187489108X311441 www.brill.nl/jre Journal of Religion in Europe Europe: Arena of Pluralization and Diversiﬁ cation of Religions Hans G. Kippenberg Max-Weber-Kolleg, Universität Erfurt, Am Hügel 1, 99084 Erfurt, Germany email@example.com Abstract If participation in church activities is critical for the strength or weakness of religion, there is no denying that Europe comes oﬀ poorly. According to American sociologists of religion the rise of religious pluralism in the USA was due to the strict separation between state and church; it compelled congregations and denominations to com- pete for believers. Th e European case is diﬀ erent. Here the diversity of religions existed long before the modern period. Since its ancient beginning European culture sought its authorities outside its geographical conﬁ nes. Greeks and Jews, Hellenism and Hebraism, Athens and Jerusalem, later Mecca and Islam became cultural points of orientation for people living in Europe. Th e article addresses the cultural and social processes that transformed these and other foreign religious traditions into typical European manifestations: the Roman legal system turned foreign religions into legal categories; it was modernization that led to the articulation of distinctly
Journal of Religion in Europe – Brill
Published: Jan 1, 2008
Keywords: PLURALISM; LAW; EUROPE; MODERNITY; RELIGION; SECULARIZATION; FUNDAMENTALISM
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