© Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2011 DOI: 10.1163/157180611X592932 International Negotiation 16 (2011) 405–425 brill.nl/iner Cultural Diﬀerences in the Function and Meaning of Apologies William W. Maddux * INSEAD, Boulevard de Constance, 77305 Fontainebleau, France (E-mail: email@example.com) Peter H. Kim ** University of Southern California, Department of Management and Organization, Hoﬀman Hall 621, Los Angeles, CA 90089–1421 USA (E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org) Tetsushi Okumura *** Nagoya City University, Graduate School of Economics, 1 Yamanohata, Mizuhocho, Mizuhoku, Nagoya 467–8501 Japan (E-mail: email@example.com) Jeanne M. Brett **** Northwestern University, Kellogg School of Management, 2001 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 USA (E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org) Received 29 October 2010; accepted 26 March 2011 Abstract One of the most eﬀective means for re-establishing trust in negotiations and disputes is by making an apology. However, the function and meaning of an apology (and thus its eﬀectiveness for negotiators) may diﬀer across cultures. We hypothesized that people from an individual-agency culture (such as the United States) understand apologies as analytic mechanisms for assigning blame and re-establishing * ) William Maddux is an Associate Professor in Organizational Behavior at INSEAD in Fontainebleau, France. His research focuses on culture and negotiations. ** ) Peter Kim is an Associate Professor at the
International Negotiation – Brill
Published: Jan 1, 2011
Keywords: conflict; trust; culture; apologies; negotiations
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