Counting – and Countering – Hate Crime in Europe

Counting – and Countering – Hate Crime in Europe brill.nl/eccl © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2010 DOI: 10.1163/157181710X12816005399195 Counting – and Countering – Hate Crime in Europe Barbara Perry Associate Dean/Professor, Faculty of Social Science and Humanities, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON, Canada Over the past decade, the European Union has experienced unprecedented demographic shifts, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Contemporary migra- tion patterns, as well as the increased visibility and activism of such communities, people with disabilities, and LGBT individuals, have arguably enhanced the dynamism and diversity of host countries. However, these same patterns have engendered a perception of threat that has all too often manifest itself in violence directed toward the Other . As nations attempt to negotiate the place of these new voices, they must also attend to the behaviours which would otherwise continue to silence them. Consequently, the measurement and regulation of hate crime have become important components of the public agenda around intolerance and xenophobia. The persistence of hate crime poses both immediate and secondary effects. Research suggests that first and foremost among the impacts on the individual is the physical harm: bias motivated crimes are often characterized by extreme brutality. 1 Additionally, the empirical findings in studies of the http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice Brill

Counting – and Countering – Hate Crime in Europe

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brill.nl/eccl © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2010 DOI: 10.1163/157181710X12816005399195 Counting – and Countering – Hate Crime in Europe Barbara Perry Associate Dean/Professor, Faculty of Social Science and Humanities, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON, Canada Over the past decade, the European Union has experienced unprecedented demographic shifts, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Contemporary migra- tion patterns, as well as the increased visibility and activism of such communities, people with disabilities, and LGBT individuals, have arguably enhanced the dynamism and diversity of host countries. However, these same patterns have engendered a perception of threat that has all too often manifest itself in violence directed toward the Other . As nations attempt to negotiate the place of these new voices, they must also attend to the behaviours which would otherwise continue to silence them. Consequently, the measurement and regulation of hate crime have become important components of the public agenda around intolerance and xenophobia. The persistence of hate crime poses both immediate and secondary effects. Research suggests that first and foremost among the impacts on the individual is the physical harm: bias motivated crimes are often characterized by extreme brutality. 1 Additionally, the empirical findings in studies of the

Journal

European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal JusticeBrill

Published: Jan 1, 2010

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