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Cosmopolitan War. By Cécile Fabre. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Cosmopolitan War. By Cécile Fabre. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. 346 Book Reviews In her new book, several chapters of which have not appeared in print before, Cécile Fabre makes original contributions to the just war theory tradition by drawing on moral cosmopolitanism. She argues that defending individuals’ rights based on moral cosmopolitanism produces a number of surprising revi- sions to the just war theory tradition that, taken together, weaken the strong moral prohibition on the use of violence. Moral cosmopolitanism, for Fabre, entails everyone having an opportunity for a minimally decent life, includ- ing some form of collective self-determination and the right to not be killed unjustly, because individuals have equal moral worth. Her account of liabil- ity to defensive harm provides individuals with a justification to use force in defense of self or others whenever someone is simply unjustly threatened with lethal force. If one accepts these premises, she argues, the justification for a resort to war is more often met than traditional just war theorists would allow. In her more original chapters, Fabre challenges the jus ad bellum con- ventions of just cause, right authority, and the jus in bello precept of non- combatant immunity. She also argues that the poor have a just cause for war (although not always a right to fight all things considered) against those who knowingly or unknowingly make a significant contribution toward maintain- ing a global economic system that violates any of their important rights. Sim- ilarly, there is a just cause for civil or international war whenever individuals’ rights are being violated by a government or nonstate actors. She undermines the traditional legitimate authority requirement by arguing that nonstate actors, including private military contractors in some circumstances, can wage war if and only if they do so in defense of innocents. Perhaps most con- troversially, she argues that sometimes the use of human shields is permissi- ble. Scholars interested in just war theory or cosmopolitanism will find her challenging and provocative book rewarding. Reviewed by Eamon Aloyo Legality and Legitimacy in Global Affairs. Edited by Richard Falk, Mark Juer- gensmeyer and Vesselin Popovski. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. Legality and legitimacy are pivotal concepts in answers to the foundational question of international politics: through what institutions can a global order be built between the unviable extremes of realpolitik and utopian idealism? Naked power must be constrained by some institutionalized rules in order to escape a Hobbesian state of war, but such rules cannot embody moral ideals since these lack sufficient political consensus or motivational pull. The con- cepts of legality and legitimacy denote viable normative schemes occupying the political space between anarchy and utopia. But theorists of both interna- tional law and international legitimacy persistently struggle to explain how such normative orders can function without collapsing back into either apol- http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations Brill

Cosmopolitan War. By Cécile Fabre. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

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Publisher
Brill
Copyright
Copyright © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands
ISSN
1075-2846
eISSN
1942-6720
DOI
10.1163/19426720-02002011
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

346 Book Reviews In her new book, several chapters of which have not appeared in print before, Cécile Fabre makes original contributions to the just war theory tradition by drawing on moral cosmopolitanism. She argues that defending individuals’ rights based on moral cosmopolitanism produces a number of surprising revi- sions to the just war theory tradition that, taken together, weaken the strong moral prohibition on the use of violence. Moral cosmopolitanism, for Fabre, entails everyone having an opportunity for a minimally decent life, includ- ing some form of collective self-determination and the right to not be killed unjustly, because individuals have equal moral worth. Her account of liabil- ity to defensive harm provides individuals with a justification to use force in defense of self or others whenever someone is simply unjustly threatened with lethal force. If one accepts these premises, she argues, the justification for a resort to war is more often met than traditional just war theorists would allow. In her more original chapters, Fabre challenges the jus ad bellum con- ventions of just cause, right authority, and the jus in bello precept of non- combatant immunity. She also argues that the poor have a just cause for war (although not always a right to fight all things considered) against those who knowingly or unknowingly make a significant contribution toward maintain- ing a global economic system that violates any of their important rights. Sim- ilarly, there is a just cause for civil or international war whenever individuals’ rights are being violated by a government or nonstate actors. She undermines the traditional legitimate authority requirement by arguing that nonstate actors, including private military contractors in some circumstances, can wage war if and only if they do so in defense of innocents. Perhaps most con- troversially, she argues that sometimes the use of human shields is permissi- ble. Scholars interested in just war theory or cosmopolitanism will find her challenging and provocative book rewarding. Reviewed by Eamon Aloyo Legality and Legitimacy in Global Affairs. Edited by Richard Falk, Mark Juer- gensmeyer and Vesselin Popovski. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. Legality and legitimacy are pivotal concepts in answers to the foundational question of international politics: through what institutions can a global order be built between the unviable extremes of realpolitik and utopian idealism? Naked power must be constrained by some institutionalized rules in order to escape a Hobbesian state of war, but such rules cannot embody moral ideals since these lack sufficient political consensus or motivational pull. The con- cepts of legality and legitimacy denote viable normative schemes occupying the political space between anarchy and utopia. But theorists of both interna- tional law and international legitimacy persistently struggle to explain how such normative orders can function without collapsing back into either apol-

Journal

Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International OrganizationsBrill

Published: Aug 19, 2014

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