1 Changing Minds: American Missionaries, Chinese Intellectuals, and Cultural Internationalism, 1919–1921 Evan N. Dawley Office of the Historian, U.S. Department of State 1919 was a year of change and upheaval the world over. The Great Pow- ers conferred at Versailles on the design of a New World Order, even as they faced instability and discontent at home. The newly formed Soviet Union continued to be wracked by civil war two years after the October Revolution, while its future adversary, the United States, was in the throes of a Red Scare and struggling to reconcile the opposing currents of isola- tionism and Wilsonian internationalism. Across the Pacific, Korean na- tionalists launched an uprising against the forces of Japanese imperialism on 1 March. Although this rebellion failed, it reflected the new anticolo- nial spirit which seemed to be sweeping across Asia and Africa and which would trigger further uprisings before year ’s end. All across the globe, it seemed, unrest, transformation, and revolution were in the air. The new mood of restlessness was nowhere more apparent than in China, where a growing spirit of international involvement seemed to be taking hold in 1919. Although the nation itself remained splintered by
Journal of American-East Asian Relations – Brill
Published: Jan 1, 2003
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