© Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2009 DOI: 10.1163/157180609X432860 International Negotiation 14 (2009) 361–391 brill.nl/iner Asymmetric Power: Negotiating Water in the Euphrates and Tigris Marwa Daoudy * Political Science Department, Graduate Institute for International and Development Studies, P. O. Box 136, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland (E-mail: Marwa.Daoudy@graduateinstitute.ch) Received 9 June 2008; accepted 5 September 2008 Abstract Th is article addresses the conﬂ ict over the Euphrates and Tigris waters from the perspective of negotiation theories, by examining the role of power in upstream/downstream negotiations. Conceptual and empiri- cal links are established between water, negotiation (structure, process), power (asymmetries, coalition dynamics, strategies, development of alternatives) and security (direct/indirect interests such as national security, border security, territorial claims, economic development and environmental concerns). Th e study concludes that asymmetries in power have favored upstream/downstream interactions towards bilateral if not basin-wide arrangements. Th e framework shows that traditional elements of power, such as upstream positions, military and economic resources, do not constitute the only sources of power. Bargaining power can also determine the dynamics between respective riparians. Time constitutes an important source of power, and interests vary over time when political settings and security concerns shift. Downstream or more vulnerable riparians can invert
International Negotiation – Brill
Published: Jan 1, 2009
Keywords: BARGAINING POWER; INTERESTS; NEGOTIATION; ASYMMETRY; KURDS; STRUCTURAL POWER; BATNA; COOPERATION; TIGRIS; PKK; IRAQ; EUPHRATES; TURKEY; ISSUE-LINKAGE; GAP; STRATEGY; SYRIA
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