* In memory of my grandmo thers, B luma Frankel Najman and Evelyn Lichterman . I gratefully acknowledge the conversations and comments of Leslie Baynes, Moshe Bernstein, Joseph Blenkinsopp, Marc Brettler, John Cavadini, Mary Rose DÕAngelo, Crispin Fletcher-Louis, Paul Franks, Andrew Gross, Robert Hayward, Matthias Henze, James Kugel, Blake Leyerle, David Nirenberg, Lawrence Schi ff man, Gregory Sterling, Loren Stuckenbruck, James VanderKam. 1 S ee A.F. Segal, Two Powers in Heaven: Early Rabbinic Reports about Christianity and Gnosticism (SJLA 25; Leiden: Brill, 1977) 64, 189, 211; W.D. Davies, ÒA Note on Josephus, Antiquities 15.136,Ó Jewish and Pauline Studies (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984) 84-88; E.E. Urbach, ÒThe Homiletical Interpretations of the Sages and the Expositions of Origen on Canticles and the Jewish Disputation,Ó ScrHier 22 (1971) 247-75, esp. 253-57 (trans. from the Hebrew original, published in Tarbiz 30  148-70); idem, The Sages: Their Concepts and Beliefs (trans. I. Abrahams; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1975) 152-53; F.F. Bruce, The Epistle of Paul to the Galatians (NIGTC; Exeter: Paternoster Press, 1982) 176-78; idem, The Acts of the Apostles: The Greek Text with Introduction and Commentary (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1990) 209; R. Kimelman, ÒRabbi Yo½anan and Origen on the
Dead Sea Discoveries – Brill
Published: Jan 1, 2000
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