V L A D I M I R S H L A P E N T O K H (East Lansing, MI, U.S.A.) Alexander II and Mikhail Gorbachevâ �� Two Reformers in Historical Perspective Comparisons o f different historical periods in order to find common pat- terns o f behavior, even within the same nation, seldom produce more than platitudes. Nonetheless, comparisons o f Russia in the mid-nineteenth century and the late twentieth century p r o m i s e to be more fruitful than most such comparisons. Several general points in c o m m o n can be briefly outlined. Both Russias were located on approximately the same territories, the main differences being that Finland and most o f the Polish Kingdom were included in the nineteenth- century Russian empire, whereas the Ukrainian Galitsia and a great part o f Central Asia were considered to be Soviet provinces. Both Russias were ruled by a strong s t a t e - i n neither case were there social groups able to exert direct pressure on the rulers. In both periods, the country was run by a bureaucracy organized according to more or less the same
Russian History – Brill
Published: Jan 1, 1990
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