A new species of Carlquistoxylon from the Early Cretaceous of Patagonia (Chubut province, Argentina): the oldest record of angiosperm wood from South America

A new species of Carlquistoxylon from the Early Cretaceous of Patagonia (Chubut province,... ABSTRACTAn angiospermous wood from the Lower Cretaceous (upper Albian) of the Cerro Barcino Formation, Chubut Group, central Patagonia, Argentina, is described. Its estimated minimum diameter is 40 cm and it is significant as the oldest known angiosperm wood for South America.It has indistinct growth ring boundaries, vessels solitary and in radial multiples, simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits, vessel-ray parenchyma pits oval to horizontally elongated, heterocellular rays, non-septate fibres, axial parenchyma absent, and abundant tyloses. Because this Albian wood has non-septate fibres we assign it to Carlquistoxylon, even though it has a general combination of characters similar to that of Paraphyllanthoxylon, which has septate fibres. The number of vessels per radial multiple, vessel tangential diameter and frequency, vessel-ray parenchyma pitting, and absence of axial parenchyma distinguish the fossil described here from the only previously known species of Carlquistoxylon: Carlquistoxylon nacimientense; therefore, a new species is erected. Because of the close similarities between this new specimen and Paraphyllanthoxylon species, comparisons with all the species included in both genera are provided. Systematic affinities for this wood are discussed considering previous discussions for both Paraphyllanthoxylon and Carlquistoxylon affinities. As the oldest described angiosperm wood in South America to date, this specimen provides critical information on the diversity and growth habit of Cretaceous angiosperms from the Southern Hemisphere. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png IAWA Journal Brill

A new species of Carlquistoxylon from the Early Cretaceous of Patagonia (Chubut province, Argentina): the oldest record of angiosperm wood from South America

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Publisher
Brill
Copyright
Copyright © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands
ISSN
0928-1541
eISSN
2294-1932
DOI
10.1163/22941932-20170206
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

ABSTRACTAn angiospermous wood from the Lower Cretaceous (upper Albian) of the Cerro Barcino Formation, Chubut Group, central Patagonia, Argentina, is described. Its estimated minimum diameter is 40 cm and it is significant as the oldest known angiosperm wood for South America.It has indistinct growth ring boundaries, vessels solitary and in radial multiples, simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits, vessel-ray parenchyma pits oval to horizontally elongated, heterocellular rays, non-septate fibres, axial parenchyma absent, and abundant tyloses. Because this Albian wood has non-septate fibres we assign it to Carlquistoxylon, even though it has a general combination of characters similar to that of Paraphyllanthoxylon, which has septate fibres. The number of vessels per radial multiple, vessel tangential diameter and frequency, vessel-ray parenchyma pitting, and absence of axial parenchyma distinguish the fossil described here from the only previously known species of Carlquistoxylon: Carlquistoxylon nacimientense; therefore, a new species is erected. Because of the close similarities between this new specimen and Paraphyllanthoxylon species, comparisons with all the species included in both genera are provided. Systematic affinities for this wood are discussed considering previous discussions for both Paraphyllanthoxylon and Carlquistoxylon affinities. As the oldest described angiosperm wood in South America to date, this specimen provides critical information on the diversity and growth habit of Cretaceous angiosperms from the Southern Hemisphere.

Journal

IAWA JournalBrill

Published: Mar 7, 2018

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